Austria Ethnography

Austria Ethnography

The Arlberg area was occupied since the century. V by the Alemanni, who in the century. X also colonized the forests of Bregenz; the Tyrol in the century. VI was occupied by the Baiuvari. After 1300 the Inn and Walser valleys received another notable contribution of Germans from Switzerland. The Swabian migrations also reached the Tyrolean region of Upper Inn and Lech, and, crossing the Alpine watershed, as far as Alto Adige (6th-7th centuries). The German colonization had to be maintained above all in the main valleys, but it also penetrated some elevated valleys overlapping the Romanism of the indigenous Rhaetian-Illyrian population which, even today, somatically, with some Nordic intrusions, constitutes the fundamental type of the population of the Eastern Alps. This penetration appears to have occurred peacefully and perhaps in a sparsely populated territory. To the east, beyond the main chain of the Tauern and the limestone Alps, the Germans, when abstracting from the remains of the old Illyrian and Celtic populations, and by the Romans established in strongholds in the Drava basin, meet in the century. VII with the competing ethnic wave of the Slavs. For centuries they lived next to them, but, under the pressure of the incursions of oriental hordes, the Germans were pushed to the middle course of the Mur and settled in the semi-desert Carinthia, already bringing in these countries and as far as Croatia a sedentary culture of type in the Middle Ages. western. In the Danubian countries the German occupation took place, without interruption, from Bavaria, from the century. IX to XI. For Austria 2008, please check payhelpcenter.com.

For the Vorarlberg, the Tyrol and the Salzburger Land (western Austria) the life of the mountaineers in connection with seasonal movements is especially characteristic. The settlement in isolated houses prevails, dedicated to breeding and mountain industry with the fields and meadows collected on the slopes of the mountain around the house. On steep slopes the hoe often takes the place of the old wooden plow, in front of which the animals were previously attached with extremely long double yokes to facilitate turning. The cattle, which have spent the winter in the stables, are subsequently sent to midseason pastures (Maiensäss in Vorarlberg) and then in the high Alps. In the mountain meadows all the young people capable of working gather in the summer and the mowers often work in ropes, equipped with mountaineering tools. The descent from the mountain meadows, in some places even the ascent, takes place in a festive procession with adorned animals. The climatic conditions require special appliances to be able to dry the fodder and hay. North of the main Alpine ridge they are spread out on poles equipped with spikes of branches (Hiefler); in the south, in Carinthia, and up to Ticino and beyond, on trestles built in the manner of an abacus (Harfen, ie “harps”, corresponding to the novel rescanne). These luminaires have correspondences as far as Scandinavia and Russia, as well as the barns on poles in the nearby Tyrolean valleys. Sledges and trolleys are also used to transport hay in the summer. However, it is also carried downstream on the shoulder, compressed between arched and tied woods (Ferkl from the lat. Ferculum) or on a wooden frame. The cutting and processing of wood, as a domestic industry, serves to supplement the company’s poor income. In the most favorable places the farms (Gehöfte) have often gathered in small farmhouses. In Vorarlberg and in the Bregenz forest, according to Swiss custom, consortiums and certain industries (embroidery, watches) are widespread. In the Stubai Valley in Tyrol, an old popular iron industry produces all the necessary rustic items, from plowshares to shoemakers’ needles. The villages are usually centralized there and placed on terraces or on dejection cones or in the valley floor, where they follow each other at intervals along the communication routes. The narrow road villages of West Tyrol were rightly brought back by Wopfner to Roman tradition. Here, as in the Engadine, the houses are mostly built of brick. Heavily decorated houses and taverns attest to past mining development (silver, gold, copper, iron) and intense road traffic in many valleys. The German farmer, as an owner or even as a tenant, lives in the same house for generations, so in the main valleys, such as in neighboring Bavaria, we find rich and spacious dwellings everywhere. In West Tyrol there are also “double houses” for two families, while the older form of paired farms, with separate kitchen and barn, has remained on the mountain slopes and in the neighboring valleys. Towards inland Austria predominates the house with an irregular construction, in wood (Blockbau) according to the German tradition, or in stone according to the Roman one; in the Bregenz forest the buildings are almost entirely made of wood. In many places, both in Tyrol and in Bavaria, the supports of the pediments have developed in a particularly artistic way. On both sides of the Arlberg a very attractive mixed architecture has developed in which the inhabited part, in masonry, stands out from the dark wooden mass of the rest of the house. These houses often have artistically carved wood paneling in their rooms; and good wood carvers and even Baroque architects like J. Prandauer came from this region. Even today men are skilled sculptors and plasterers looking for seasonal gains in Germany and even in France,

Along the road that goes from the Brenner to Bavaria, the houses still show rich ornamental frescoes everywhere. The art practiced, here as in Bavaria especially in the century. XVIII, survives, much decayed, only in the profession of some wanderers Fassani. The entrance to the houses is generally located on the chimney side of the roof (usually the narrowest facade of the house), while in the Alemannic region and north-west Tyrol it opens from the sloping side. From the porch one enters the kitchen and the dining room on one side (Stube), whose stove is made of black or glazed tiles or a simple wall and is heated by the kitchen or corridor. The old stoves are often distinguished by artistic sculptures; in Vorarlberg there are also bluish-white tiled stoves. The bedrooms and corridors on the first floor contain the trunks and chests, which in the surrounding low-traffic valleys (Oetztal, Alpach) still retain forms of the late Gothic, while the lower Inn valley rather flaunts a Baroque richness of colors and the Arlberg region and the Salzburger Land show fine carvings.

Austria Ethnography