Brief History of Slovenia
According to localcollegeexplorer, the independent state of the Republic of Slovenia and its current political structure are the result of a long struggle of the Slovenian people for their independence. The desire of the Slovenes for independent statehood was clearly expressed in the program of “United Slovenia” (1848). For the first time they acquired their own political and state structure in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918). In Slovenia, a republican form of government was established within a common constitutional and parliamentary kingdom.
On June 6, 1929, a dictatorship was introduced by the king of a multinational state, the Constitution was abolished, the assembly (parliament) and political parties were dissolved. The country was divided into 9 regions (banovins) with centrally appointed authorities. In accordance with the new Constitution put into effect in 1931, a bicameral assembly was established.
During the People’s Liberation War (1941–45), the Slovenes fought not only against the fascist invaders, but also for their right to self-determination. This was one of the main demands of the Slovenian Liberation Front and the Union of Deputies of the Slovenian People. Immediately after the war, Slovenia became part of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRYU) as one of the 6 national republics. According to the Constitution of 1946, the FPRY is a state of equal peoples united on the basis of the right to self-determination. The Yugoslav federal state was built on the basis of the principle of democratic centralism, which did not allow the sovereignty of its constituent parts. The state and political structure of the FPRYU, and then the SFRY, was based on the monopoly of the only ruling party – the Union of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKYU), on public ownership of the means of production and the unity of the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government. The Yugoslav specific assembly system of organs of power, workers’ self-government, local communal system, and with the adoption of the Constitution of the SFRY in 1974, the system of socialist self-government, based on the delegate principle of representation in organs of power and the system of united labor in the economic and social spheres, were fully applied in Socialist Republic of Slovenia. According to the new Constitution, all federal units – 6 republics and two autonomous regions within Serbia – had limited sovereignty and significant independence, especially in the economic sphere.
The protracted political and economic crisis in the SFRY became especially acute in the 1980s. and eventually led to the disintegration of the federal state into 5 independent states. Even before that, in Slovenia, as a result of the process of liberalization, new political forces were established in power. In the fall of 1989, Slovenia amended its republican constitution, securing the right of the Slovenian people to self-determination up to secession from the common state and joining other states. The sphere of competence of the republic in the legislative and economic fields has expanded. In the same year, the Republican Law on Political Pluralism was passed.
The state has a new name – the Republic of Slovenia – since March 1990. The Tricameral Assembly as the highest authority in the republic is the result of the first multi-party elections in April 1990. Executive power passed to the opposition movement “Demos”. Amendments to the republican constitution were adopted, significantly limiting the powers of the federation. In December 1990, a plebiscite on the independence of the Republic of Slovenia was successfully held. On June 25, 1991, the Basic Constitutional Act on the independence and independence of the Republic of Slovenia was adopted.
All these unilateral actions of the Slovene authorities were declared unconstitutional by the federal authorities, and units of the Yugoslav People’s Army were brought into Slovenia under the pretext of defending the external borders of Yugoslavia. After the armed clashes of the territorial defense units of Slovenia with the federal troops in the summer of 1991 and the withdrawal of the latter from the republic, an international moratorium was introduced on the practical implementation of the act of independence. After the three-month moratorium expired on October 8, 1991, the Republic of Slovenia became not only de facto, but also a legally independent state. On December 21, 1991, the Assembly adopted the Constitution of the new state.