Bulgaria Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Bulgaria
The majority of the approximately 7 million Bulgarian population lives in the cities south of the Balkan Mountains. The population development has been declining for several years and is currently (2017) -0.7% per year. Many Bulgarians left the country after joining the EU and settled in various Western European countries. At the same time, people in Bulgaria have a relatively low life expectancy and a low birth rate. Bulgaria
According to directoryaah, the population consists of over 80 percent Bulgarians, 9 percent Turks and between 5-12 percent Roma. In addition, Russians, Armenians, Wallachians and the Muslim, Bulgarian-speaking Pomaks live in Bulgaria. The Bulgarians also include the Macedonian and Thracian Bulgarians, who are descendants of Bulgarian refugees and make up about a third of the population. In 2017, 2.2% of the population were migrants who immigrated via Russia, Greece and Turkey.
The official language in Bulgaria is Bulgarian. Dialects of Turkish, Romani and Armenian are widespread as minority languages. Cyrillic letters are used in Bulgaria.
Politics and economy in Bulgaria
At the head of the Bulgarian government is the President, who primarily exercises representative functions and represents the Republic of Bulgaria abroad. In addition, he appoints the members of the High Command of the Armed Forces, the governors of the 28 administrative districts and a third of the constitutional judges, countersigns decrees of the head of government and his ministers, concludes international agreements, promulgates the laws and, if necessary, appeals to the constitutional court. He is elected by the people for 5 years.
The Government of Bulgaria is formed by the Council of Ministers. It consists of the Prime Minister, who is elected by Parliament, two deputies and the 18 ministers. The government is accountable to Parliament, which appoints the Prime Minister on the proposal of the President and the other ministers on the proposal of the Prime Minister.
The People’s Assembly is the parliament of Bulgaria, which consists of 240 members who are elected for four years. Government members are not allowed to belong to the National Assembly in the sense of a strict separation of office and mandate. The duties and responsibilities of the Parliament, which operates according to the unicameral principle, are regulated in the 1991 constitution and primarily include control of the government and the passing of laws. The MPs themselves have a legislative right of initiative. In addition to the People’s Assembly, there is also the Great National Assembly in Bulgaria with 400 members. This is only responsible for changes to central constitutional principles and for the adoption of a new constitution. It is to be elected by resolution of the People’s Assembly and also exercises all of the powers of the “ordinary” National Assembly for the duration of its mandate. The People’s Assembly can amend or supplement all provisions of the Constitution with the exception of those for which the Great National Assembly is responsible.
The constitutional court sits at the head of the judiciary, and one third of its judges are also elected by the people’s assembly. The Constitutional Court can be brought before the Supreme Court of Cassation or the Supreme Administrative Court. In addition to these courts, there is also the Supreme Judicial Council elected by the People’s Assembly, which represents the courts as the highest administrative body and guarantees their independence. It determines the structure of the courts and regulates their activities without interfering with the independence of the judicial organs.
In the political system of Bulgaria, the lines of conflict between right and left, or conservative and liberal as well as pro-Russian and pro-western parties, as well as capital versus labor and city versus country are present.
According to ebizdir, the originally agrarian economy of Bulgaria is mainly concentrated in the south of the country and has only slowly recovered after the disappearance of the Soviet market, with which most of the trade relations existed. The most developed regions today are Sofia, Burgas, Stara Zagora and, in northeast Bulgaria, Varna. The northwestern Bulgaria region is the least economically developed region in Bulgaria. Bulgaria itself has long been one of the countries with the lowest GDP per capita and the highest poverty rates in the European Union. The most important branches of industry are: chemical industry, food and food processing, tobacco industry, metal industry, mechanical engineering, textile industry, glass and porcelain industry, coal mining, steel production, energy industry, tourism.
Transport network in Bulgaria
As an important transit country between Central Europe and the Middle East, Bulgaria has a relatively well-developed road network, but with relatively few motorways that are still being developed. Since 2013 there has been a direct motorway connection between the capital Sofia and the Black Sea. The expansion of east-west connections is a priority in Bulgaria. The entire asphalt road network covers around 19,500 km (2011), on which the majority of traffic in Bulgaria takes place. Regular buses run between the big cities, regional connections to the smaller cities are available from the respective provincial capital.
The rail network in Bulgaria has a length of more than 5000 km (2014). All major cities in Bulgaria are served by the Bulgarian State Railways. The main routes will be expanded, but train connections to smaller towns will be canceled. The Bulgarian railway currently requires longer travel times than a comparable bus line, but it is cheaper on some routes. High-speed lines between Sofia and Istanbul as well as to the Romanian border are being planned.
In Bulgaria there are four international airports in Sofia, Varna, Burgas and Plovdiv, which can be approached for a trip to Bulgaria.
Important sea ports are Burgas and Varna. There are also smaller seaports in Sozopol and Balchik as well as inland ports on the Danube. Shipping traffic on the Danube plays only a subordinate role for Bulgaria. In addition to cargo ships with limited cargo handling, the ports are mainly used by cruise ships.