Cameroon History Timeline
According to historyaah, Cameroon, officially the Republic of Cameroon is a unitary state in East and Central Africa. The country borders Nigeria to the west, Chad to the northeast, the Central African Republic to the east, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo to the south.
The area of present-day Cameroon was first inhabited in the Neolithic. The ethnic groups that have lived the longest in the area are pygmy groups such as baka. The Sao culture originated around Lake Chad around 500 AD. and paved the way for Kanem and its successor Kanem-Bornu. Kingdoms, fon and chieftain societies arose in the west.
The country is divided into 3 regions: the northern savannah valleys on Lake Chad with cattle breeding and maize cultivation; the central part with moist plains, and in the south with fertile, volcanic soil, where mainly export crops such as coffee, bananas, cocoa and cotton are grown. Drought and desertification are the main problems in the northern region, which accounts for 25% of Cameroon’s land area and where more than a quarter of the country’s population lives.
See photo gallery with explanations of castle ruins found in northern Cameroon (Mandara mountains). Tap the image at the top left to begin the slideshow. The Mandara Mountains are a volcanic mountain range that stretches for about 200 km, near the border between Cameroon and Nigeria
Cameroon is the country of origin and center of the Bantu tribes, who in the 2nd century BC. initiated an expansion to the east and south and thus gained widespread knowledge of growing new crops and extracting iron. The first meeting with the Europeans was quite short; Fernando Pó named the river, whose sandbanks were full of shrimp, the “Shrimp River” – hence the name of the country.
1884 – German invasion takes place in June, when Representative Gustav Nachtigal enters into an agreement to establish a protectorate with the coastal people, the king of the Dualas. At the Berlin Conference a year later, Cameroon was handed over to Germany, but it was not until 1894 that the Adauma emirate, which was strongly sought after by the English, was formally incorporated into the country.
1918 – France and England invade Cameroon; the French settled on 75% of the country while the English were allotted the rest. The conflicts between the two colonial powers enabled the formation of popular movements fighting for independence.
1945 – The Cameroon People’s Union (UPC) is founded, led by Rubem Um Nyobé. The UPC gained broad popular support and led a series of legal demonstrations, from 1948-1956, when the party was banned.
The 1990s – the years showed that it was becoming increasingly common to beat people – a practice that had been unknown before the crisis. Corruption in the police and the inefficiency of the judiciary caused sectors of the population to catch and beat the petty thieves – often to the dead in the case of men or to the severely wounded in the case of women. Often it was later revealed that it was the innocent who had been killed.
1990 – Social and political organizations accuse the government of being behind attacks on hundreds of Cameroonians. A few months later, the government allowed the creation of political parties; about 70 political organizations became legal in this way.
1997 – At the end of the year, opposition to an oil extraction project grows, with the support of the World Bank, to carry oil from southern Chad, across Cameroon, to the Atlantic Ocean. Hundreds of NGOs instead called on the World Bank to spend the money on social development programs.
1999 – In October, Transparency International publishes its annual report on economic corruption, which places Camaroon in the world’s second most corrupt country.
2004 – In January, the Presidents of Cameroon and Nigeria sign an agreement to jointly lift security obligations in the conflict zone between the two countries. Both countries described the joint patrol as a major step forward, declaring the agreement to be a friendship agreement. Paul Biya (Cameroon), Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria) and UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated at a joint meeting in Geneva that they sought to find a common solution to the border conflict. The meeting was described by both presidents as “friendly”, and at the meeting they also discussed the future control of the oil deposits on the Bakassi Peninsula.
2005 – In March, the government declared that the widespread corruption in the Ministry of Finance had cost the country 2 million. US $ per month. About 500 officials were accused of putting money in their own pockets by e.g. to pay salaries to non-existent employees. Prime Minister Inoni stated that those found guilty would face harsh punishments.