Cuba Population, Politics and Economy

Cuba Population, Politics and Economy

Population in Cuba

According to directoryaah, Cuba has around 11.35 million residents. The population is made up of almost 51% mulattos, 37% whites and around 11% blacks, who are descended from former slaves. The original Indian population was largely expelled or perished from diseases brought in by the colonialists. The Philippines and Chinese, who immigrated in the 19th century, are smaller minorities. Around three quarters of the population live in the cities, around 2.21 million people in the capital Havana, other cities are Santiago de Cuba with over half a million residents and Camagüey with around 305,000 residents. There are one million Cuban exiles living in the United States, especially in the state of Florida (estimated).

At 97%, the literacy rate is at a high level for a third world country, which is due to the education program of the Cuban government. Life expectancy is also comparatively high (women 80 years, men 75 years), as medical care is largely free.

Politics and economics in Cuba

According to the 1976 constitution, Cuba is a socialist one-party state with the Communist Party as the only legal political party. In 2002 socialism was enshrined in the constitution as “irrevocable”. The head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces is the president (Raúl Castro). The National Assembly (Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular) has 614 members who are directly elected by the people for five years. The deputies elect the 31 members of the Council of State and together with it determine the members of the Council of Ministers (36 members).

The legal system consists of Spanish and US law in conjunction with communist regulations.

Since the revolution in 1959, a socialist planned economy has been operated in Cuba, but the country has not been able to completely break away from the structure of the colonial economy. Due to the collapse of the Eastern Bloc and the associated failure of the most important trading partner, the Soviet Union, and its massive economic support, the Cuban economy fell into a serious crisis at the beginning of the 1990s. The trade embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba, which is still in force despite sustained protests by the United Nations, makes things even more difficult. When the Russian oil supplies ceased in 1994, drastic reductions in energy consumption became necessary. In 1991 the Cuban government called a “special period” with extreme austerity measures and a strengthening of self-sufficiency. The then head of state Fidel Castro also tried to reintegrate Cuba into the world market and allowed more foreign companies to invest in the country. The approval of medium-sized companies on an independent basis is also one of the measures with which the Cuban economy is to be strengthened. A transition to a market economy and more private property is rejected, however. The countries of the European Union are now Cuba’s most important foreign trade partners.

Cuba Politics

According to ebizdir, approximately 25% of all Cuban workers work in agriculture. However, the export of sugar cane and sugar cane products now only accounts for around 40% of foreign trade. Coffee, tobacco (export of the world-famous Havana), vegetables, rice and citrus fruits are also grown. Fisheries play a major role in meeting the food needs of the population.

Today, services are the most important economic sector in Cuba, including the export of medical services. As the main source of income for foreign exchange, tourism has put the sugar cane industry in second place since the mid-1990s. The government is strongly promoting the expansion of the tourism industry. Remittances from Cubans in exile to their loved ones, estimated at over $ 500 million annually, are also significant.

The outdated transport network was declared one of the main investment priorities in 2006. The currency is the Cuban peso.

Transport network in Cuba

Cuba has a well-developed road network, including a motorway, which is not very busy due to the low level of motorization. However, the roads are sometimes in a very bad condition. Since Cubans have not been allowed to own cars privately since the revolution, there are very many, mostly American, vintage cars in the country. Since 2014, Cubans have been allowed to buy new cars again, but at a multiple of the price as in Europe, for example.

The state railway company Ferrocarriles de Cuba operates the only state railway network still in operation for passenger traffic on a Caribbean island. It is one of the oldest in the world (since 1836) and covers over 4500 kilometers (excluding routes for sugar transport).

Cities and regions in Cuba

The biggest cities in Cuba

City Residents
Havana 2,125,977
Santiago de Cuba 443.006
Camaguey 310.387
Holguín 294.011
Guantanamao 221.262