Ethiopia Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Ethiopia
Ethiopia has seen rapidly growing population since the beginning of the 20th century. Between 1987 and 2017 alone, the population more than doubled from 44 million people to over 100 million people due to increasing life expectancy, with over 45% of the people living in Ethiopia being under 15 years old.
Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic state with 120 ethnic groups, which are differentiated, among other things, on the basis of their language usage and their settlement areas and whose size ranges from several million to a few hundred people.
According to directoryaah, the largest ethnic group with 34 percent of the population are the Oromo, who live in the south, east and west of the country and formerly known as “Galla”. The Oromo belong to the Kushitic language group, which also includes the Somali, Afar, Agau in the lowland areas and in the northern highlands and the Sidama, Hadiyya and others in the southern highlands. The omotic language group in southwest Ethiopia includes Wolaytta, Gamo, Kaffa and numerous smaller groups. In the west of the country, in the border areas with Sudan and South Sudan, there are also smaller minorities who speak Nilo-Saharan languages. However, since the end of the 19th century, the country has been dominated by the Amhars on the political and cultural level. Although they officially only make up around 27 percent of the population, their language, Amharic, is Official language and widespread especially in cities as a lingua franca. In addition, over 80 other languages are spoken in Ethiopia. English is used as the language of education in most secondary schools.
1.2% of the population have foreign roots and are mostly refugees from Eritrea, Somalia and South Sudan.
Politics and Economy in Ethiopia
In 1975 the constitutional monarchy with the Privy Council of Abyssinia was abolished as a parliament in Ethiopia. After a transition period with restructuring to become a socialist people’s republic, Ethiopia has been a federal republic since 1991, which was confirmed by the 1995 constitution. The president is elected by parliament and has predominantly representative tasks. The actual head of government is usually the representative of the strongest party in parliament and appoints the members of the Council of Ministers. The parliament consists of two chambers: the Bundeshaus with 198 seats and the People’s House of Representatives with 548 seats, whose members are directly elected by the people for a term of five years. The highest legal instance is the Supreme Court in the capital Addis Ababa.
According to ebizdir, Ethiopia’s rapidly growing economic output showed the highest economic growth in the world in 2015 at 10.2 percent, with annual growth rates of between eight and twelve percent of the gross domestic product. This has made it possible to make progress in the fight against poverty and in the expansion of infrastructure, but a significant part of the population still lives below the absolute poverty line. Ethiopia’s foreign trade consists essentially of the export of coffee, with Germany being the largest buyer. However, the share of agriculture in the gross domestic product has fallen in recent years in favor of a rapidly growing service sector. Due to the favorable external conditions for energy generation in many places, the signs are favorable, To make Ethiopia a major exporter of clean and inexpensive renewable energy. The fossil fuels such as coal or natural gas, which are abundant in the country, are hardly used. The up-and-coming tourism industry in Ethiopia also contributes to economic growth, developing and marketing the many tourist attractions in the country and now generating 5.5% of the gross domestic product.
Culture and sights in Ethiopia
Although geographically assigned to Africa south of the Sahara, large parts of Ethiopia are strongly influenced by influences from the Middle East in their historical and cultural development. For example, painting, which is atypical for sub-Saharan Africa, and the production of fine handicrafts have their roots in the old North African-Near Eastern cultural area. The country has been dominated by the Amhars on the political and cultural level since the end of the 19th century. Although they officially only make up around 27 percent of the population, their language, Amharic, is the official language and especially in the cities as the lingua franca.
Due to its Christian traditions and historical isolation, Ethiopia is culturally distinctly different from other African countries south of the Sahara. This is expressed in the architecture and art of the country, including the Ethiopian cuisine.
One of the most important modern Ethiopian painters is the painter Afewerk Tekle, who died in 2012, and who designed large-format oil paintings, sculptures and practical art, including postage stamps.
The pentatonic traditional music of Ethiopia is very different from the music of the rest of Africa. It is played by singer-poets called Azmari, who travel through the country with songs in ballad form, spreading old stories and taking a stand on current issues. The instrumental accompaniment takes place on the lyre (Krar or Beganna), the single-stringed bowed box lute (Masinko) or the flute (Waschint). In addition to traditional forms of music, vital popular music developed from 1950, especially in the big cities, which combined western and local styles.
In addition to its cultural diversity, Ethiopia has a long tradition of presenting excellent long-distance runners. 20 athletes from Ethiopia won a total of 53 Olympic medals at the Olympic Games.
Cultural sights include the palace of Emperor Fasilides in Gonder, the cathedrals and stele fields of Axum, the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela and the small, world cultural heritage city of Harar with 90 mosques and the house of Arthur Rimbaud. In addition, Ethiopia has a wide range of natural beauties to offer such as the waterfalls of the blue Nile near Bahir Dar, the national parks worth seeing such as the Simien National Park or the Awash National Park and the Danakil Depression with the unique backdrop of the Erta Ale volcanic area.