Germany Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Germany
Over 83 million people live in Germany with a statistical population density of approx. 233 residents per km². The population development in Germany has been declining since 2005 and has only experienced slight growth of around 0.2% since 2015 due to the refugee crisis. With an average age of around 44 years, Germany’s population is one of the oldest societies in the world when compared internationally.
According to directoryaah, around 87% of people living in Germany have German citizenship (2017). Ancestral national minorities are Danes, Frisians, Sorbs and Sinti and Roma. Around 23% of the population immigrated to what is now the Federal Republic of Germany after 1955 and have a migration background. Among them, the repatriates and ethnic German repatriates form the largest group, followed by citizens of Turkey, other states of the European Union and the former Yugoslavia. Between 1950 and 2002 a total of 4.3 million people, either born in migrant families or living in Germany for a long time, were naturalized on their own application. After the USA, Germany is the country of immigration with the highest immigration rate.
In Germany, standard German is primarily used as the official language. However, the transition to the German dialects is fluid. Some regional and minority languages such as Low German, Danish, Frisian, Sorbian and Romani of the Roma may be used as official, legal or court languages.
Time and again, immigrants such as the Ruhr Poles brought their own languages with them in the 19th century. While the descendants of the older waves of immigration have largely adapted linguistically, immigrants of the past decades (especially Turkish guest workers) often use their mother tongue alongside German. The Russian language is also widespread among Russian-Germans and Jews from the Soviet Union. Polish is also suspected to be an everyday language in certain circles.
About 60 percent of the population belong to a Christian denomination, either the Roman Catholic Church (approx. 29%), or the Evangelical Church (approx. 27%), or other communities such as Orthodox, Ancient Near Eastern, New Apostolic and free churches, or Jehovah’s Witnesses, with a total of around 3 percent. The Muslim proportion of the total population is around 5.5 percent and has a predominantly Turkish migration background.
About 0.3 percent of Buddhists, mainly immigrant Asians, are suspected to be in Germany. In addition, around 200,000 Jews are resident in Germany and around half are organized in Jewish communities. Since the 1990s, the Jewish communities have seen a strong increase in the number of immigrants from the former Eastern Bloc states, especially from Ukraine and Russia.
Politics and economy in Germany
The constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany is reflected in the Basic Law. The system of government is a parliamentary democracy. The federal state is divided into two levels in the political system: the federal level, which represents the entire state of Germany externally, and the federal state level, which exists in each of the 16 federal states. Each level has its own constitutions and state organs of the executive, legislative and judicial branches. The head of state is the Federal President with primarily representative tasks. In terms of protocol, he is followed by the President of the German Bundestag, the Federal Chancellor and the President of the Bundesrat, who represents the Federal President.
The federal legislative bodies are the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat. In the federal states, the state parliaments decide on the laws of their state. The executive is formed at the federal level by the federal government, which is headed by the Chancellor as head of government. At the state level, the prime ministers lead the executive. The federal and state administrations are each headed by the relevant ministers.
The Federal Chancellor is elected by the Bundestag with a majority of its members on the proposal of the Federal President. His term of office ends with the Bundestag’s electoral term. The Federal Ministers, who together with the Federal Chancellor form the Federal Government, are appointed on the proposal of the Federal Chancellor. The leadership role in the German “Chancellor Democracy” falls to the Federal Chancellor. The Chancellor also nominates the German candidate for the office of EU Commissioner.
With a nominal gross domestic product of around 3.6 trillion US dollars (2017), Germany is the most powerful economic area in Europe and the fourth largest in the world. As a member of the European Union, Germany is part of the largest domestic market in the world with a total of around 500 million residents and a nominal GDP of 17.6 trillion US dollars (2011), as well as part of the euro zone currency union.
In terms of the value of goods, Germany is one of the third largest import and export countries in the world (2016). The main trading partners are the People’s Republic of China, France, the USA, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Italy and Poland (2016).
According to ebizdir, approx. 74% of the total economic output is provided with services, approx. 24% with industrial production and approx. 2.% with agriculture. The number of unemployed is around 2.9 million people (2014).
Germany has a wide variety of raw material deposits and a long mining tradition (including coal, precious salts, industrial minerals and building materials, as well as silver, iron and tin). However, the industry is dependent on global raw material imports. The population potential with a good education and the culture of innovation are considered to be prerequisites for the success of the German economy and knowledge society. The automotive, commercial vehicle, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemical industries are considered to be the most competitive sectors of German industry worldwide. Aerospace technology, the financial sector with the financial center Frankfurt am Main and the insurance industry, especially reinsurance, are also of global importance. The importance of the cultural and creative industries is increasing.