History of Russia
The history of Russia has more than one millennium. It can be conditionally divided into three periods: from the beginning of the formation of the Russian people until 1917, which marked the end of the Russian Empire; from 1917 to the collapse of the USSR in 1991; from the collapse of the USSR to the present.
In the 1st millennium BC. on the territory of Russia there were city-states, the Bosporan state, the state of the Scythians. In the VI – XIV centuries. parts of the territory of Russia were occupied by the Turkic Khaganate, the Khazar Khaganate, the state of Bohai, the Volga-Kama Bulgaria. The Old Russian state was formed in the 9th century. from individual East Slavic tribes that have long lived in this territory. Among these tribes were the Polans who lived in the middle reaches of the Dnieper, the Slovenes who lived in the vicinity of Lake Ilmen, as well as the Drevlyans, Radimichi, Vyatichi, Northerners, White Croats, Dulebs, Ulichs, Krivichi, Tivertsy, Dregovichi, etc. In 988 – 89 gg. Christianity was adopted as the state religion of Russia. In the XII-XIV centuries. in Russia, the Novgorod Republic, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir, Galicia-Volyn and other principalities stood out.
According to ITYPEJOB, Russia existed in difficult conditions of continuous struggle with neighbors and nomadic tribes. At the beginning of the XIII century. a large army of new nomads led by Genghis Khan conquered Central Asia and approached the southeastern borders of Russia. In 1223, the Mongol army under the command of Subedei defeated the combined forces of the Russians and Polovtsians in the battle on the Kalka River. From that moment began the era of the Golden Horde yoke, which lasted more than 200 years. In parallel, at this time, the principalities were waging an internecine struggle, which greatly weakened the forces of Russia. The yoke left its mark on the entire further course of Russian history, becoming one of the reasons for the backwardness of Russian lands from the developed countries of Western Europe. Huge damage was done to the economic, political and cultural development of Russia.
In the XIII century. feudal fragmentation became a new form of organization of Russian statehood. The process of fragmentation led to the fact that the newly formed lands and principalities, in turn, were divided into smaller destinies. Political fragmentation did not mean a break in ties between the Russian lands and did not lead to their cultural disunity. In the XIV – XV centuries. the process of centralization of Russian lands began. Moscow became the center of land consolidation. In this difficult time for Russia, the church had a great influence on the historical fate of the Russian people. Monasteries that arose in dozens in the north and northeast of Russia during the 14th and 15th centuries became cultural and spiritual centers. The completion of the process of unification of the Russian lands around Moscow into a centralized state falls on the years of the reign of Ivan III (1462 – 1505) and Vasily III (1505 – 1533).
The 16th century is the “threshold” of the new time in Russian history. The economic rise of its first third is replaced by stagnation by the middle of the century and an economic crisis in the 1970s and 1990s. The process of strengthening the grand-ducal and then tsarist power withstood two periods of unrest – after the death of Vasily III in the 30s – 40s, and then in the 80s – 90s – after the death of Ivan IV. The development of social thought reaches an unprecedented flowering by the middle of the century, only to then, during the years of the oprichnina and the economic ruin of the end of the century, practically disappear from the surface of public life. At the end of the 16th – the middle of the 17th centuries. serfdom took shape in Russia.
The greatest prosperity of Russia falls on the reign of the Romanov dynasty. The greatest Russian ruler from the House of Romanov was Peter I, under whom Russia became a great power and was proclaimed an empire. Petrine reforms of the late 17th – first quarter of the 18th centuries. contributed to the socio-economic and cultural development of the country. Russia won the Northern War, securing access to the Baltic Sea. As a result of accession in the XVI – XIX centuries. territories of the North, the Volga region, the Urals, Siberia, the Far East, a multinational state was formed. The reign of the Romanovs lasted over 300 years. During this time, there were both ups and downs in the life of the country. Russia repelled the Napoleonic invasion in the Patriotic War of 1812. In the course of the peasant reform in 1861, serfdom was abolished. At the end of XIX – beginning of XX centuries.
The defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War aggravated the situation in the country, which led to the Revolution of 1905-07. The transition to a constitutional monarchy began in the country, the State Duma was established. As part of the Entente, Russia participated in the First World War of 1914-18.
In 1917, during the February Revolution, the autocracy was overthrown. Civil War 1917 – 22 and military intervention contributed to the establishment of the military-communist principles of organizing society, all political parties were banned, except for the Bolsheviks, and the dictatorship of the Communist Party was actually established in the country. On December 30, 1922, the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR and the Transcaucasian Federation (ZSFSR) formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The USSR won the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45.
In December 1991, the leaders of the RSFSR, the Byelorussian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR signed the Belovezhskaya Accords, which stated the cessation of the existence of the USSR and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In March 1991, the post of President of the RSFSR was established, to which B.N. was elected in the same year. Yeltsin. In 1992, the transition to a market economy began in Russia. In December 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted; Elections to the Federal Assembly were held. In 1996 B.N. Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian Federation for a second term. In March 2000, V.V. won the presidential election. Putin, who officially took office in April.