Honduras Dictionary of History
Honduras State of Central America. The region was inhabited in pre-Columbian times by the chorotegas and the Maya; in the 11th century. the Toltecs settled there, and then the Aztecs. C. Columbus discovered the country in 1502. C. de Olid founded (1524) the first colony in Triunfo de la Cruz. With the indigenous resistance suppressed (1530), Honduras it was under the jurisdiction first of Mexico and then of Guatemala (1539). In the colonial period there were frictions with England for the settlement on the coast. The conquest of independence from Spain followed a parallel trend with the other Central American countries. The first uprisings of Tegucigalpa, in 1812, followed the adhesion to the declaration of independence in 1821. Annexed to the Mexican empire in 1822, Honduras broke off after the fall of A. de Iturbide in 1823 and became a member of the Federation of United Provinces of Central America, of which the Honduran F. Morazán was president (1830-39). Between 1838 and 1840 the Federation dissolved and Honduras it declared itself an independent and sovereign state, nevertheless becoming the promoter throughout the century of various initiatives aimed at reconstituting the Federation, until 1895, when Honduras, Salvador and Nicaragua united into a single Republic, which however dissolved in 1898. Afterwards the First World War, in which the Honduras entered in 1917 declaring war on Germany, a federation attempt was repeated with the constitution, between Honduras, Salvador and Guatemala, of the Central American Union, which however failed in 1921.
After a period of civil war and various revolutionary governments, in 1932 T. Carías Andino was elected president, who with successive re-elections ruled for seventeen years. The economic crisis, determined by the decrease in banana crops and the reduction in exports, provoked a revolt in 1937, which was quelled with the help of the army; the same year the dispute with Nicaragua for the tracing of the borders intensified, which began in 1935 and was partially resolved through the intervention of Pan-American organizations. After participating in the Second World War alongside the United States, in 1945 the Honduras he joined the United Nations and in 1951 the Organization of Central American States.
According to indexdotcom, the political framework, however, remained characterized by great political instability, with an alternation of presidents elected and subsequently deposed by military juntas and coups d’etat. The situation of extreme institutional precariousness worried the US ally, interested in making Honduras a stabilizing element of the political situation that arose in Central America in the late seventies with the revolutionary uprising in Nicaragua and the serious internal crisis in El Salvador. Pressure from the Washington government then initiated a partial democratization process, which led to the 1980 general elections for the choice of a constituent assembly. In 1982 the leader liberal R. Suazo Córdova was elected president, coinciding with the entry into force of the new constitutional charter. In foreign policy, the government was close to the United States and supported its support for the anti-Sandinist guerrillas, to the point of generating serious tension with Managua, while the dispute with Salvador relating to the possession of Meanguera Island remained open. The administration of nationalist president RL Callejas, elected in 1990, tightened austerity measures in an attempt to cope with the difficult situation of foreign debt; the resumption of international credits was matched by the growth of social protest and the repressive interventions of the army, in particular the peasant unrest linked to the unsolved problem of agrarian reform. The elections of 1993 brought the Liberals back to power and CR Reina was elected to the presidency of the Republic. The new administration did not deviate from the previous one in its economic policy choices, but took a series of initiatives aimed at fighting corruption and crime linked to drug trafficking, and limiting the power of the armed forces. CR Flores Facussé (1998-2000) continued in the policy of controlling and dismantling the military apparatus. After an attempted coup d’état, in 2001 new elections brought the nationalist R. Maduro to power, under which the historic political-territorial dispute with El Salvador was resolved; the two countries, together with Guatemala and Nicaragua, signed a free trade agreement with the United States. In 2005 the presidential elections were won by the liberal candidate M. Zelaya, which launched new plans to revive the economy. In 2009 he was deposed by amilitary coup and, despite protests from the international community, replaced with R. Micheletti. The successive presidential elections have seen the victory of P. Lobo, candidate of the National Party.