Hungary Flora and Fauna
Flora and vegetation. – From a phytogeographical point of view, Hungary must be understood in a broader sense than the current political one and belongs to the floristic district of Central Europe, although Alföld is attributed to the Pontic steppes. According to recent studies, the following botanical provinces can be distinguished in the Hungarian territory: Carpaticum, Moesicum, Pannonicum, Noricum, Illyricum, which in turn are divided into a certain number of sectors.
As for the constituent elements, in the Hungarian flora the following groups can be distinguished:
- Cosmopolitan and adventitious species: comprise 6.4% of the total (4.2% cosmopolitan, 2.2% adventitious); most of the cosmopolitans are found in Alföld where they represent 8.1% of the total, somewhat less in the Eastern Carpathians (5%); of the adventitious, in Alföld 3.3%, in the Western Carpazî 1.6%.
- European and Central European species represented: a) by holoarctic types that are found in the holoarctic floristic dominions of Europe, Asia and North America; b) from Eurasian species from Europe and northern Asia; c) from European types found only in Europe.
These three subgroups are also found in the Mediterranean floristic region. Here, among the species, also those which, being between the European and continental groups, are generally encountered only in Eastern Europe and go as far as the central ones (continental Eurasian types).
In this group there are Middle European elements made up of Central European species that also go eastwards in the Crimea and Caucasus territories or towards the south (Central European Mediterranean types); a transition with the group of alpine species is represented by the Central European group of mountains, whose species are found in the subalpine zone.
The European species dominate in all the provinces of the Central European floristic region and with regard to the Hungarian flora they represent 39.2% of the indigenous flora (30.9% of European elements, 8.3% of Central European elements). In the Alföld the two groups represent 65% of the total (of which 53.40% of European and Central European species) and from these figures it can be deduced that the territory of the puszta, based on the analysis of the flora, does not belong to the Pontic steppes.
Continental species: these are mainly distributed in the east and in the south-eastern regions of Europe and going westwards their number decreases. Those species which also in Asia have a larger area, have been considered as continental Eurasian species.
The pure pontic species which live in the southern steppes of Russia and Hungary and whose main diffusion is found in the Pontic floristic region, the Sarmatic species, which live in the regions of central Russia between the steppes and the subarctic regions of the woods, are distinguished. of Conifers, and the cassubic species, whose distribution center is found especially in Poland and near the Baltic. Continental elements form 14% of the total Hungarian flora and are naturally more widespread in Alföld (19.6% including Pontico-Mediterranean species, 11.1% if alone).
Mediterranean floristic elements: they come from the South, such as for example. from the evergreen and mountainous regions of the Mediterranean. Some of these types come largely from central Europe (Mediterranean Central European types), while others go beyond the limits of the Mediterranean. The species of this group reach a particular importance (also taking into account the Pontic-Mediterranean and Atlantic-Mediterranean ones) in the flora of southern Banat (there 10% corresponding to 20.3% of the total), but also in Alföld (9, 1% corresponding to 19.2%), in the Transdanubian region (9.1% corresponding to 18.3%) and in the mountainous region of central Hungary (Osmatra; 8.9% corresponding to 18.5%) and a some quantity also in the western Carpathians (3.2% -10.4%).
Atlantic elements: they have little importance; the euatlantic species are completely lacking, the subatlantic ones penetrate deeply into the central European regions towards the east, the subarctic atlantic and the mediterranean atlantic, which are also found in the floristic provinces of the western Mediterranean, are the most numerous (2.9%).
Boreal or Nordic elements: they constitute a characteristic group that represents 1% of the total flora. They penetrate deeply into central Europe from the arctic and subarctic regions and live in swampy areas and coniferous forests.
Alpine elements: meet in the high mountains. above the tree line; they are distinguished in proper alpine species (endemisms of the Alps and Noriker endemisms in Hungary), Carpathian alpine species (in the high mountains of central Europe from the Pyrenees to the Caucasus), boreal alpine species that are also encountered in Scandinavia and in the arctic regions and subarctic, Alpine-Arctic-Altaic and Alpine-Altaic species and finally Pyrenean-Carpathian species.
In the Pannonian province the Alpine elements are almost completely Marican, in the eastern Carpathians there is almost 10.7%, in the western ones 13.7%: in total in the Hungarian flora they represent 10.2%.
Balkan elements: they are characteristic and meet towards the north as far as Podolia and towards the south-west as far as Anatolia and the Caucasus; the Illyrians or western Balkans have penetrated to the west (Illyrian-Alpine elements) or to the east (Illyrian-Balkan elements) or to the north (Illyrian-Carpathian species).
In Alföld (v.) The vegetation is of particular interest. In it, the following phytogeographic territories can be distinguished:
Praematricum: sandy woods (Quereus robur and lanuginosa ; Betula pendula); sandy bushes (Juniperus and Populus); sandy puszte with development mainly of Festuca vaginata ; brackish steppes, marshy meadows; some grassy woods. There are few Pannonian and Pontic endemic forms, few Baltic elements. The cultivated area on the other side of the Danube and towards the south has no particular phytogeographic characteristics.
Titelicum: Slavonian oak forests (Quercus robur) with other woody elements and Mediterranean links (Lonicera caprifolium, Tamus communis); löss steppes with Mediterranean and Pontic elements; some swamps. No endemic elements.
Deliblaticum: the sandy puszta of Deliblat represents a transition zone with Praemaesicum: woods (Quercus lanuginosa, Juniperus). There are Pontic and Balkan links and many small endemisms.
Crisicum: grassy and marshy woods, marshy lands now cultivated; near the Tisza with association of Glycyrrhiza echinata with Astragalus contortoplicatus, Vicia picta, Heliotropium supinum, Veronica supina. Almost no endemism (Ononis breeds).
Samicum: sandy woods of Quercus robur, Betula pendula with Iris hungarica, Daphne cneorum etc.; sandy puszte without Juniperus ; marshy woods with many mountainous elements (Gigliacee, Orchidee, Trollius europaeus, Geranium palustre); marshes on the border of the Alföld and marshy meadows with brackish soils. Few endemics; Pontic, Baltic and Carpathian elements; postglacial wrecks.
The flora of Alföld thus consists of central and western European elements that have reached this point through the Carpazî, consisting first of all of the arboreal vegetation and that which grows in the undergrowth; partly of Pannonian elements; then of southern steppe plants represented by Balkan Mediterranean elements and finally of immigrant species in historical times.
Alföld, which was once a natural wooded steppe, is now a cultivated region; as a result of historical influences an artificial steppe was formed, whose vegetal covering only partly consists of original associations (swamps, ponds, marshy meadows, dry and grassy woods, marshy woods, remnants of sandy steppes, sandy and brackish puszta) and which show vegetable formations of secondary origin, while in part there are crop formations (fields, pastures, new woods, especially locust and oak trees). The whole territory belongs to the climatic region of Quercus robur (Quercion roburis). The Mezőség are an antisteppa close to the sandy steppes of Eastern Europe and belonging to the same climatic association as Alföld.
The endemics of the Hungarian flora are numerous and can be divided into Carpathian and Pannonian elements; they are about 400 and represent 8% of the total flora. As for the wrecks, they are tertiary, glacial and xerothermal. In the postglacial period the character of the Hungarian flora changed due to the immigration of the Pontic and continental species.
Fauna. – The Hungarian fauna does not offer particular characteristics, as it fits perfectly into the faunal complex of Central Europe and the Balkan region. The species that make up this fauna are therefore common to the Central-Eastern European fauna. For Hungary 2011, please check internetsailors.com.
Among the mammals we note various bats, various insectivores and carnivores such as foxes, wolves, various martens, many gnaws. Among the birds we will mention the woodcock, the bigeye, the gurnard, various ardee, many gallinaceous, birds of prey, creepers, passerines and palmipeds. Discrete the number of Reptiles and Amphibians. Freshwater fish are also well represented along with an extensive array of terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates.