India Country Information

India Country Information

India is a huge subcontinent located in southern Asia. India borders with Afghanistan, Pakistan in the northwest, in the north – with China, Nepal, Bhutan, in the east – with Burma and Bangladesh. In the south, a narrow strait separates it from Sri Lanka. India has a length of 3214 km from north to south and 2935 km from west to east. The Indian peninsula is bordered by the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. There are three natural regions in India. In the north – this is the mountain range of the Himalayas and the Karakorum, in the south – the Dekan plateau with the coastal lowlands bordering it. Between them lies the Indo-Gangetic lowland. According to, the capital of India is Delhi.

Among the many wonders that tourists who come to India marvel at, the iron column in Delhi is of particular admiration. This six-ton ​​metal pillar has been open to rain and wind since ancient times. But rust has not yet touched the iron smelted fifteen thousand years ago. This is how ancient Indian metallurgists immortalized their skills! Most foreign tourists consider the main attraction of India, its most famous historical monument is the Taj Mahal. But the features of Indian national art cannot be judged only by the architecture of the Great Moghuls. This art has many faces. And the surest clue to understanding its origins is perhaps given by the frescoes of the Ajanta caves and the rock temples of Ellora. It is clear why the Taj Mahal is widely known – it is a stone’s throw from Delhi, which is why it flaunts on tourist posters all over the world. Of course, the significance of this magnificent monument should not be underestimated, but the cave temples of Ajanta were created over a period of nine hundred years, and from their frescoes one can study the architecture of ancient cities, ancient costumes, jewelry, weapons. This is a real encyclopedia of Indian art. What about the Kailash Temple at Ellora? I would like to call it one of the wonders of the world. It’s not about the size – similar buildings in Indialot. All these architectural volumes, the entire temple – from the high plinth, decorated with life-size figures of elephants and lions, to the pyramidal towers – all this is carved from one single piece of stone, all this is not a building, but a sculpture. When you approach the temple of Kailash, dedicated to the god Shiva, you see, as it were, a giant cave without a roof. A sheer stone wall approaches the temple from three sides. The main object of worship is the genital member of this god. This is a one and a half meter high stone pillar, on which peasant women from the surrounding villages put on a wreath of fresh flowers every morning. Yes, at least most tourists go to Agra to see the Taj Mahal. But only some forty kilometers from there is the third capital of the Great Moghuls – Fatehpur Sikri. Four centuries ago this city surpassed London, but once it was abandoned by people, turning into a ghost town. Time seemed to stop for him, as in the city from the fairy tale about the sleeping beauty. And that is why Fatehpur Sikri has changed much less over the past four hundred years than Agra and Delhi.

Take a ride on a buffalo-drawn cart and then marvel at the ancient art of snake charmers. Enjoy an English-style tea party at a luxurious palace hotel. Go for a walk or hike deep into the dazzling beauty of the irresistible Himalayas. Relax in a ship house in silver Kashmir surrounded by mountains. See the sophisticated and graceful Indian dances, in which every movement of the hand or foot, every pose is a work of art in itself. Listen to the mesmerizing beauty of Indian music. Mingle with the joyful crowd on one of the many holidays. Experience the splendor and luxury of the cities, fortresses and palaces of the Mughals and Maharajas of North India. Buy wonderful souvenirs and gifts in numerous shops and workshops, paying for figurines of fine carvings, colorful dresses, exotic perfumes, marbles inlaid with precious stones, handmade carpets, silver, silk paintings and rare gems and jewelry are just a fraction of what what they would cost you elsewhere.

India – Facts and Figures

Capital Delhi
Area, km² 3.287.263
Dimensions, km. 3214 north to south, 2933 west to east
Population, people (2001)
Languages Official languages: Hindi, EnglishConstitutional languages: Assami, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Marathi, Manipuri, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Sindhi.
Currency unit Rupee
(divided into 100 paise)
Discrepancy with
Greenwich time
5 hours 30 minutes

In India, which occupies a large area and is characterized by a significant vertical differentiation of the relief and different distances from the ocean, contrasts in the distribution of heat and moisture are pronounced. In general, the climate of the country is greatly influenced by monsoons.

The altitude factor predetermined the cold climate of the high mountains in northern India, while the temperate climate prevails on the low slopes of these mountains and on the plateau. The resorts of Northern India are located in the altitudinal zone from 1500 to 2300 m. For example, in Darjeeling and Srinagar, the climatic conditions are comfortable throughout the year.

Average monthly temperatures in Darjeeling range from 4°C in winter to 17°C in mid-summer when moderately warm weather prevails.
In many parts of Hindustan, the average air temperature of the coldest month, January, is 18–24 ° C, and the summer months are 24–29 ° C. However, the temperature often rises to 32 ° C during the day.
In the northern plains, from West Bengal to the border with Pakistan, summer is very hot, and the average temperature in Bengal reaches 29 ° C; they gradually rise as they move northwest and in Delhi reach 33 ° C in May. average winter temperatures there are 7–16°C.

India Country Information