Luxembourg Dictionary of History
Luxembourg Western European state. In 963 Sigefredo I, count of Bigdau, bought the castle of Lucilinburhuc (Lützelburg), which gave the name of Luxembourg to the surrounding domains. Henry IV, elected king of the Romans (Henry VII, 1308), ceded the county in 1310 to his son John, King of Bohemia, whose son, the emperor Charles IV, elevated it (1354) to the status of duchy. The marriage (1409) between Elizabeth of Görlitz, the last heir of the duchy and Antonio, Duke of Brabant and Limburg and brother of the Duke of Burgundy, Giovanni Senza Fear, decided on the future of Luxembourg: Elizabeth ceded her rights to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to which in 1451 the states of the duchy took an oath of allegiance. Passed, following the marriage of Maria of Burgundy with Maximilian, to the Habsburgs and then to Charles V, in 1555 it came into the possession of Philip II of Spain. In the 16th and 17th centuries., during the wars between France and Spain, it lost part of its territory to the advantage of France. Passed to Austria in 1714, the Luxembourg was annexed to France during the revolutionary and Napoleonic ages and elevated to grand duchy by the Congress of Vienna in favor of William I, king of the Netherlands. In 1830 he participated in the Belgian revolution and until 1839 was associated with the life of Belgium.
According to indexdotcom, with the treaty of 1839 the western part of the Luxembourg remained united to the new kingdom, constituting the Belgian province of Luxembourg; the eastern part continued to form a grand duchy under the sovereignty of the king of the Netherlands. The relations between the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of the Netherlands took on a character of simple personal union until 1890, when the King-Grand Duke William III died without male heirs. Since female succession did not apply in the Grand Duchy, then introduced in 1907, Adolfo, the last Duke of Nassau, ascended the throne. His descendants continued to reign over the country. The invasion by Germany in the First and Second World Wars induced Luxembourg, signatory of the United Nations declaration (1942), to formally renounce, after the end of the conflict, any form of neutrality: he joined as a founding member of the Atlantic Pact (1949) and the Western European Union (1954), he promoted the European Communities and in the following years supported European integration, until the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and the adoption of the euro in 2000. I ties with the closest countries were strengthened in 1948 with the Benelux economic union (with Belgium and the Netherlands). The political framework of the Luxembourg is characterized by a substantial stability which, in the second half of the 20th century, it revolved around the Parti chrétien social, which remained in government without interruption, with the sole exception of the years 1974-79, when a coalition composed of the Parti ouvrier socialiste and the Parti démocratique, of liberal orientation, went to the head of the government. In 2008, the refusal of Grand Duke Henri, a practicing Catholic, who ascended the throne in 2000 after the abdication of his father Jean, to countersign the law that made euthanasia and assisted suicide legal led the government to pass an amendment to the Constitution, for the which the prerogatives of the sovereign have been reduced: he can only promulgate laws, no longer sanction them.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
The historical events and the limited territory prevented the formation of an autonomous art. After the foundation of the abbey of Echternach (7th century), the village was introduced to the Carolingian culture, and actively participated in it above all with the miniature. Incorporated into Lotharingia, it was later influenced by Ottonian art. Defense constructions (fortresses and fortifications, mostly ruins) are a feature of the landscape. For a long time the French Gothic taste mainly influenced sculpture and architecture. The Baroque left a notable mark on churches and fortifications. A particular fusion of French and German Rococo characterized the works of the 18th century, while in the 19th century the taste was decidedly oriented towards France. In the 20th century. significant the theoretical contribution of the architects Luxembourg and R. Krier, mainly active abroad.