Form of government and constitution
Madagascar is a democratic republic and has a semi-presidential system of government. The president is directly elected by the Malagasy people for five years. He can rule for two terms of office, i.e. remain in office for a maximum of ten years. The parliament consists of two chambers, the Senate with 33 MPs and the National Assembly with 151 MPs. 2/3 of the Senate is directly elected by the people, 1/3 of the deputies are appointed by the President. The senators’ term of office is six years. The National Assembly can put a vote of no confidence in the President and propose the Prime Minister; however, this is appointed directly by the President. The President can dissolve Parliament, but not the Senate. Legislative initiatives are developed and introduced by parliament and the government. Basically, the state structure is based on the French model. Since the Malagasy constitution, which was newly adopted in 2010, the president has had extensive executive powers.
According to dentistrymyth, in Madagascar, parties are hardly political associations that have evolved over time, but are principally groups to promote a single personality. Mostly they are founded by the person running for the presidency, lose their meaning after the elections and can also dissolve again or be restructured or renamed. For example, the TGV (Tanora malaGasy Vonona) founded by Rajoelina became MAPAR(Miaraka Amin´ny Prezida Andry Rajoelina = together with President Rajoelina) renamed. MAPAR is currently the largest group in parliament, but it does not have a majority. The TIM party (Tiako-i-madagasikara (“I love Madagascar”) founded by Marc Ravalomanana in 2015 is now also home to the AVANA (Antoko ny Vahoaka Aloha No Andrianina = rainbow), which Rahaonarimampianina’s party HVM – founded in 2014 – has run Although the majority in the Senate (in the indirectly conducted Senate elections in 2015 the ruling party HVM won 34 out of 42 seats), it practically only exists on paper and has no independent profile. The President does not rule with a majority in parliament, but with changing ones Mergers.
The Association pour la Renaissance de Madagascar (AREMA), which was also founded by a former president, Didiar Ratsiraka, in 1976, does not currently play a significant role. Even the TIM, which was the strongest party in parliament until 2009 and provided the president – Marc Ravalomanana – is now more in the background. The AVI(Asa Vita no Ifampitsarana), founded by Norbert Ratsirahonana, ex-head of state of the interim government in 1995 after Albert Zafy was removed from the presidency, is no longer a party, but an insignificant association. The MFM (Mpitolona ho amin y Fampandrosoana an’l Madagasikara = Party for the Development of Madagascar), founded in 1973 and actually popular due to its positive attitude towards political liberalization and its attempts not to recruit its members based on regional ethnic lines, is practical today nonexistent.
The law passed in 1990 to permit a multi-party system gave rise to many other small opposition parties, including parties such as the RPSD (Rassemblement pour la Social-Démocratie) or the AKFM Renouveau (Renewed Malagasy Congress Party), but they are hardly present in government affairs no program structure.
Overall, the multi-party system in Madagascar is not very efficient and urgently needs reforms.
The administration of Madagascar is divided into 22 regions, which in turn are divided into 119 districts – so-called Fivondronana. The lowest administrative level is formed by the municipalities, with cities and villages having self-administration.
In the three-colored flag of Madagascar, the colors red and white historically represent the Hova Empire and the Kingdom of Madagascar at the time of the Merina kings. The green was added later. The color red today symbolizes the sovereignty of the state of Madagascar, white represents purity and green stands for hope. The current flag has been officially in use since 1958.
Madagascar’s coat of arms or the seal shows the map outline of the island, surrounded by a white circle. The head of the zebu, which is the subject of almost cultic veneration for the Madagascans, can be seen under the circle, and rice fields are also symbolized. The green and red rays represent the sun rays. At the top is the state name Repoblikan’i Madagasikarato see. The current seal was introduced in 1998. Historical coats of arms or seals come first from the monarchies of Queen Ranavalona II, then from the Merina Kingdom of 1896. Later, different coats of arms of the Republic of Madagascar were introduced (1958-1975; 1975-1992; 1993-1998). The coat of arms, which was valid from 1993-1998, is very similar to the present one except for the color.
The slogan or motto of Madagascar is ” Fitiavana, Tanindrazana, Fandrosoana ” (“Love, Fatherland, Progress”). It can also be seen at the bottom of the coat of arms.
The national symbol of Madagascar is the ring-tailed lemur or ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), also called maki, and the baobab tree is the plant.
The national anthem of Madagascar has been the Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô since April 27, 1959.
The German translation is:
Oh you beloved land of our ancestors, Oh you beautiful Madagascar
our love for you will not wane, but will always exist for you.
You Creator God, bless this island of our ancestors. She will know peace and joy so that we may live in perfect happiness.
O beloved land of our ancestors, we want to put ourselves at your service. Our love, hearts and souls, what we have precious and worthy.
Oh beloved land of our ancestors, you are blessed that the Creator of the world may be the basis of your conduct.