N’Djamena, Chad

N’Djamena, Chad

N’Djamena is the capital of Chad, and the city with the most residents in the country. The city is rated as the third most expensive city to live in. It has an approximate population of 993,492 residents.

History

The city was founded by the French as Fort-Lamy in 1900, was developed as an administrative center and military outpost of the African French West. In 1960 it became the capital of independent Chad and in 1973 it adopted the name by which it is known today.

N’Djamena was once one of the most dynamic cities in Central Africa. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the war between political factions disrupted life in the city, and has left its mark, such as bullet holes in the walls of buildings.

Geography

According to abbreviationfinder, N’Djamena is the capital of Chad and Chari-Baguirmi prefecture. The city is located in the southwest of the country, along the Chari River near its confluence with the Logone River

Climate

N’Djamena has a semi-desert climate, having a historical maximum temperature of around 47 degrees Celsius.

Economic development

Although it is not a port city, it is the economic, administrative and cultural center of the country. One of its most important industries is that of prepared meat.

Transport and communication

N’Djamena is connected by a bridge to Kousséri, in Cameroon.

N’Djamena International Airport is located on the outskirts of the city.

Throughout history, the main connection of N’Djamena with the outside was through river navigation on the Chari and Logone rivers, but this has changed and today they are only used for small loads. The city does not have railways for transportation.

Social development

Culture

In the city of N’Djamena you can see the exciting historical neighborhood with the spectacular colonial architecture of abobe houses. The National Museum has collections of the Sahr culture, dating back to the 9th century, through which the visitor can get an idea of that culture. The colorful market is the ideal place to see local life and buy beautiful carpets and jewelry made on site.

Other interesting places in this city are The Cathedral, Kussery Fortress, Sinianka Minia Reserve and Zakouma National Park.

You cannot miss the Muslim neighborhoods (very quiet at night) and the neighborhoods populated by immigrants from the south of the country, full of bars and animated by night owls.

Religion

The population is predominantly Muslim. See population of Chad.

Education

N’Djamena has a university, schools of administration and veterinary medicine, a large group of secondary schools including the former Liceo Félix Éboué and the Liceo Técnico-Comercial, and the American International School of N’Djamena.

About Chad

Chad. Located in Africa, North Central, located south of the desert of the Sahara, it is a landlocked country to the drink. It is bordered to the north by Libya, to the east by Sudan, to the south by the Central African Republic and to the west by Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger.

History

The history of Chad is that of the clash – at least since the 7th century – between the nomadic, Islamic peoples of the north and the sara, animists, of the south, who lived off agriculture and hunting. For several centuries, before the arrival of European colonizers, the peoples of the north enslaved those of the south.

The first Europeans to arrive were the missionaries, who already at the end of the 18th century had managed to convert the Sara, who received European education and allied with their conquerors to fight the Northerners.

Around 1885, the French began the conquest of Chad, but did not actually occupy it until 1920. In 1946, it became part of the French territories of Equatorial Africa. In 1958, it was proclaimed an autonomous republic and in 1960 it was granted independence. The first president of independent Chad was N’Garta Tombalbaye, who in 1962 proclaimed the country’s first Constitution.

In 1975, Tombalbaye, leader of the Chadian Progressive Party (PPC) was deposed and assassinated. Under his rule, ethnic and religious antagonisms, as well as economic discrimination between the north and the south, became more acute. Following his assassination, Félix Malloun was appointed the new president and head of the Supreme Military Council. Over the next three years, relations with Libya deteriorated because of mutual accusations of border violations.

In the early eighties, the civil war became general in the country, with frequent Libyan interventions, a country that in 1981 withdrew its military forces from Chad. In 1979, French troops entered N’Djamena, and Malloun left the country, agreeing to a ceasefire through Sudan. At a conference in Lagos, a representative government of eleven factions was appointed, proclaiming Gukuni Ueddei as president. When the Libyan troops withdrew, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) organized a peacekeeping force. However, Ueddei rechasó the proposal of the OAU to negotiate with the rebels and announced a new constitution for the country, but response was a mobilization of rebel forces Hissen Habre, who in October of 1982 they seized the capital and ousted to Ueddei.

Hissen Habréhabía had been appointed prime minister by Malloun, but the differences between the two ended in bloody factional clashes. Ueddei regrouped his forces, after finding support in Libya, and captured the northern stronghold of Faya-Largeau in 1983, provoking an immediate reaction from France, which sent a contingent of 1,000 soldiers. Paris proposed creating a federation in the country, but the plan was rejected by Ueddei. The following year an attempt to negotiate between the two factions failed and an armed mob broke out.

In 1987, Libyans were driven out of Faya-Largeau by Habré’s forces, joined by their former adversaries, after the split between Ueddei and Colonel Gaddafi. Ueddei recognized Habré as the legitimate head of the state of Chad, although fighting continued for the Aozú region. After the recognition by Gaddafi of the Habré regime, in May 1989, the new Constitution decided to keep Hissen Habré as head of state and government for another seven years.

But his opponents, led by Maldum Badá and Idriss Deby, formed a military alliance against Habré, whom France aided by sending an airborne force. The rebels, supported from Libya by factions of the political opposition to Habré, caused serious setbacks to government forces. Despite French military support, the rebellion led to the downfall of Habré and his replacement as head of state by Deby. France and the World Bank bore much of the costs of rebuilding a country depressed by more than 25 years of civil war.

N'Djamena, Chad