Nigeria – a Country Full of Contradictions Part III
Boko Haram was formed as early as 2002 and was initially a peaceful movement with headquarters in Maiduguri, city in the state of Borno. Here they established a larger religious center with a mosque and an Islamic school. In 2009, however, clashes broke out between members of Boko Haram and the police, and this even with the army and local police forces storming Boko Haram’s headquarters. They captured and executed Boko Haram leader Mohammed Yusuf without trial. Many believed that this meant the end of Boko Haram – it did not happen.
Boko Haram returned in September 2010 . Then they attacked a prison in Borno (Maiduguri) and released several hundred prisoners. This was the start of a very violent campaign with killings and bombings that have killed thousands of people. At times, Rørsla has had control over several villages and pig-ridden areas in the north of the country. The new Boko Haram is no longer a mass movement that seeks to convert people to its version of Islam.
It is more injuries dominated organization that consciously seeks to provoke harsh responses from the Nigerian army and violence between Christians and Muslims in Nigeria, a country located in Africa according to thesciencetutor.org. The idea seems to be that this will throw the country into a ragnarok of a civil war. In it, the Muslim masses will turn to Boko Haram, which will thus be the armed spearhead of a Muslim uprising. The hope is that the uprising will culminate in a new caliphate in northern Nigeria.
This is unlikely. The majority of the victims of Boko Haram’s acts of violence are Muslims themselves. And the vast majority of the many Muslims in Nigeria do not want to have anything to do with Boko Haram. At the same time, the Nigerian state’s response is neither very effective nor well thought out. The lack of clear political leadership will only make matters worse.
Many Muslim youths in the north feel that they live between the bark and the wood . They have little sympathy for Boko Haram and their ideas, but the Nigerian army does not treat them well either. It takes little to be arrested as a possible member or sympathizer of Boko Haram. For many young people in the north, therefore, the army is as much a problem as Boko Haram . The Nigerian state is also unable to provide good answers to the living conditions challenges.
Maiduguri, Boko Haram’s hearth, is also an area that only seems to get drier and drier. Lake Chad, which used to be a particularly important source of life in this area, is shrinking. The former largest reservoir of fresh water in the entire Sahel is today only one-fifth of its original size. This has had major consequences for people’s living conditions. The arable area shrinks. There is also less water available for cattle keeping, and the once large inland fishing in the sea is a thing of the past.
Someone therefore left the area to make a living elsewhere. For those who remain, the situation becomes increasingly difficult; the nigerian state does little or nothing for them. Then Boko Haram can appear as an alternative for someone when the state is unable or unwilling to do anything to remedy people’s problem.
7: Challenging future
Nigeria is therefore facing a challenging future , and the political problems may exacerbate the conflicts both in the Niger Delta and in the north of the country. At the same time, it is important to keep in mind that this country is a paradox with its many contradictions and contradictions. Whenever international observers believe that the country is really going to unravel, it miraculously manages to recover and move forward. The country is rich and poor at the same time. It is a great power with both military, cultural and financial muscles, but at the same time ravaged by violence, corruption and political conflict.
Like a number of other states in Africa, Nigeria today stands at a crossroads . If the country manages to resolve the political disputes and create an economic growth that benefits more than the elite, and which is better rooted in the people, Nigeria can become a global power and not just a great power in Africa. If they do not succeed, the country will not go over without further ado, but it will then continue to run slalom dangerously close to the brink of state collapse. The country has done so far too often in its history as an independent state.
- Area : 923 000 km 2
- Population : 175 million (2013)
- Annual population growth : 2.5%
- Median age : approx. 18 years
- Life expectancy : 73 years, K: 75 and M: 71
- Degree of urbanization : approx. 50% bur in villages
- Literacy : 61.3% of all. M: 72.1, K 50.4%
- Fertility / children per woman: 5.3
- Value creation by sector: Agriculture 31%, industry 43% and services 26%
- Employment by sector : Agriculture 35%, industry 33 and services 32% (estimate 2011)
- Economic growth : 6-7% annually in the last year
- Annual inflation : varies between 10 and 13% in recent years
- Collect government debt in% of GDP: approx. 18%
- Percentage of population living on less than $ 2 daily: 84%
- Ethnic group r: Total about 250; the largest are hausa and fulani with tils. 29%, youruba 21%, igbo 18% and ljaw 10%
- Religion : Muslims ca. 50%, Christians about 40%, local variants about 10%
- Language : English is official. Andre: hausa youruba, fulani
- Federation divided into 36 states and the capital Abuja. The states are again divided into 774 municipalities. Every quarter of a year, presidential and parliamentary elections are held at the same time.