Peru Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Peru
According to directoryaah, the population of Peru grew from about 7.7 million in the middle of the last century to over 32 million in 2017. About 79% of the population lives in large cities and about a quarter of the population lives in the capital Lima alone. With an average age of around 28, the society of Peru is relatively young. Although the population is still growing at just under 1% per year, forecasts assume a long-term slowdown in population growth and an associated aging of Peruvian society.
In addition to Bolivia and Guatemala, Peru also has a large proportion of indigenous population groups. 37 percent of the population are mestizo and around 47 percent indigenous indigenous people, who mostly belong to the Quechua and Aymara speaking peoples. 15 percent of the population are of European descent, four percent are estimated to be Afro-Peruvians and another three percent are of Asian descent, mainly Chinese and Japanese. A minority of German-speaking Rhinelanders and Tyroleans have lived in Pozuzo and Oxapampa in the Pasco department since the 19th century. Around two and a half million Peruvian citizens are due to ongoing emigration abroad, especially in the USA, Europe and Japan.
The official language Spanish is spoken by around 83% of the population as their mother tongue. In second and third place are the indigenous languages Quechua (13.6%) and Aimara (1.6%). In June 2017 it was decided to found an Aimara University.
Politics and economics in Peru
The government of Peru is representative, decentralized and based on the principle of the separation of powers. The president, who is elected by the people every five years, heads the government as head of government. Its wide-ranging responsibilities include representing the state internally and externally, conducting general government policy, calling elections to the office of President and Congress, and fulfilling and upholding the constitution and laws. The Prime Minister is the coordinator in the Cabinet of Ministers. The Peruvian Congress is the parliament of Peru with the tasks of legislating, controlling the executive and judiciary and representing the people. It is a unicameral parliament with 130 members, each elected for five years.
Peru is rich in natural resources, especially copper, gold and silver. The country is one of the largest producers of these raw materials in the world. In addition, Peru is the second largest fishing nation after China. The growth of the Peruvian economy is hampered by its low productivity and has been around 5% per year for the past twenty years.
According to ebizdir, the gross domestic product of Peru is distributed around 40% in services, 15% in trade, 14% in industry and 7% each in agriculture and construction. The main exports are copper and fish meal, iron ores and silver. In the meantime, tourism also contributes to economic performance as an important and stable area. In the northern coastal area and in the Amazon basin, oil is produced, which is mainly used for the Peruvian industry.
Above all, however, the numerous indigenous population groups of Peru often still live on independent subsistence farming with traditional methods such as tropical horticulture in the Selva as well as agriculture and alpaca remote grazing in the Andes. A significant part of the indigenous population in particular lives below or on the edge of the poverty line. Due to the contrasts in the ethnic cultures, mismanagement and bloated bureaucracy, the population is insufficiently supplied. Food imports and thus high foreign exchange expenditures are the result. The unemployment rate in Peru is between 6 and 7%.
Transport network in Peru
Peru has around 72,900 km of roads. However, especially the arteries leading over the Andes cause infrastructural problems due to the enormous height differences. Although the road expansion is increasing rapidly, the asphalt roads at higher altitudes are always susceptible to maintenance and failure, for example from landslides, water or frost damage. As in most countries in the region, road traffic bears the main traffic load. Cities and towns are connected by buses and taxis.
The rail network in Peru consists of several sub-networks that are not connected to each other. There are currently around 2200 km of rail in operation. From 1990 the three largest rail networks in Peru, which were operated by the state railway company ENAFER, were largely privatized. One of the best known and most profitable railway lines in Peru is the route of the Peruvian Southern Railway into the Urubamba Valley to Machu Picchu.
The international airport in Callo near Lima handles most of the international flights. Every other city has small airports that offer domestic flights. In the rainforest areas there are places that can only be reached on airstrips laid out by the military.
The port of Callao is the main seaport in Peru. In addition to Lake Titicaca, inland shipping on the major headwaters of the Amazon with the inland ports of Iquitos, Pucallpa and Yurimaguas is of certain importance, as the Atlantic in Brazil can be reached by ship from here.