Poland Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Poland
According to directoryaah, Poland has around 38 million residents with a population density of around 122 residents per km². At around 40 years (2016), the average age is relatively low in a European comparison. By the middle of the century, Poland is threatened with a significant increase in the median age and a decrease in the population to 33 million people. The reasons for this are the low birth rate and emigration. Poland experienced an increase in population, among other things, as a result of the Ukrainians who had moved to Poland since the war in the Donbas. Today’s Poland has been an ethnically homogeneous state since the Second World War. The national minorities include Germans, Belarusians, Ukrainians and Russians as well as Lithuanians, Czechs, Slovaks and Polish Armenians. The ethnic minorities include Kashubians, Roma, Lemks, Tatars, Karaim, Jews and Silesians. The national language is Polish, which is spoken regionally in different dialects. In addition, languages such as Kashubian, Armenian, German, Hebrew, Yiddish, Lithuanian, Russian, Slovak, Czech, Ukrainian and Belarusian as well as Karaim, Russian or Lemko, Romani and Tatar are recognized as minority languages. The religions represented in Poland are made up of 86% Catholics, 1.3% Orthodox churches and small minorities of Protestants, Jews, Muslims, Mormons or Jehovah’s Witnesses.
Politics and economy in Poland
The Republic of Poland is a parliamentary democracy. The current state organization law is described in the 1997 constitution. The Polish system of government contains many elements of direct democracy. The Polish parliament consists of the two chambers of the Sejm and the Senate. The Sejm, together with the Senate, holds the legislature. The political parties represented in parliament are grouped as parliamentary groups in a government and the opposition. The Sejm MPs and Senators meet in the National Assembly on special occasions. The executive organs are the President, who is also the Head of State, and the Council of Ministers, which is headed by the Prime Minister. The competences between the President and the Council of Ministers are not clearly delimited, There are overlaps in particular in the areas of foreign and defense policy. The right to initiate legislation belongs to the president, the government, the Senate, a group of at least 15 MPs or the citizens, whereby the Polish constitution provides for referendums at national and local level. Instances of ordinary jurisdiction are the Rejong Courts, the District Courts, the Appeal Courts and the Supreme Court.
According to ebizdir, the Polish economy has developed comparatively well since the end of socialism. Poland has seen consistently positive economic growth with up to 5% increase in the BPI in recent years. The growth is promoted by a business-friendly policy, fiscal stability, flexible labor law, by the consistent use of EU funds for the expansion of the infrastructure and, last but not least, by extensive foreign direct investments. The regionally very different unemployment rate is just under 6% (2019). For a long time agriculture was the main branch of the economy in Poland, which was considered the breadbasket of Europe. In addition, Poland has long been a mining country with tradition thanks to the areas of Silesia. So it is not surprising
The service sector has dominated Poland’s economy since 1989 and accounts for well over half of GDP. In addition to banking, insurance and financial services, tourism is also playing an increasingly important economic role in Poland.
In the industrial sector, mainly companies from the automotive and electrical industries are active. The agricultural machinery industry has specialized in inexpensive, smaller machines. Polish manufacturers are also leaders in the segment of semi-trailers, trailers and bodies for trucks. In addition, listed industrial companies are active in the ceramics and pharmaceuticals sector as well as in the textile industry. Many foreign companies have opened production facilities in Poland because of the relatively low wage and ancillary costs as well as the high supply of highly qualified workers.
Transport network in Poland
The Polish road network has a total length of around 382,000 km with around 1,660 km of motorways and a further 1,600 km of expressways. The intercity bus service, which also includes the smallest towns, is of great importance in Poland. There are numerous bus connections both within the country and across borders. The operators are several private and regional companies.
Rail transport on the approximately 23,420 km long route network still plays an important role in Poland despite the strong increase in private transport over the past two decades. The rail network is star-shaped with Warsaw as the center. Other important transport hubs are Poznan, Gdansk, Szczecin, Wroclaw, Katowice and Krakow. There is a new line from Warsaw to Katowice / Krakow. The most important cities are connected with each other by InterCity trains, in the aforementioned metropolitan agglomerations there are S-Bahn-like suburban train systems.
By far the largest and most important airport in Poland is Frederic Chopin Airport in Warsaw, followed by those in Krakow, Katowice and Gdansk. Other airports with less international air traffic are Poznan, Wroclaw, Łódź, Stettin, Rzeszów, Bydgoszcz and Olsztyn-Mazury.
There are 3,812 km of navigable waterways in Poland. The most important sea ports in Poland are in Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie and Szczecin, from where there are regular ferry connections to Helsinki, Stockholm, Malmö and Copenhagen.