Republic of the Congo State Overview

By | November 27, 2021

The Republic of the Congo (French: République du Congo ; Kongo: Repubilika ya Kongo ; Lingala: Republiki ya Kongo), also known as Congo-Brazzaville or the Congo, is a country in Central Africa. The republic is a former French colony. After independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo.


According to abbreviationfinder, the Republic of the Congo is located on the Atlantic coast of central Africa. It is bordered to the south to the north by the Central African Republic and Cameroon, to the west by Gabon, to the south by Angola (through the Cabinda enclave), and to the south and east by the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The country has a relatively sparse littoral area, which is home to the second largest city in the country, Pointe Noire. On the other hand, the territories north of Brazzaville, the capital, are dominated by vast expanses of jungle. In this sense, it is worth highlighting the status of Impfondo, the only one entirely dominated by the jungle. The most important jungle city in the country is Ouesso.

The climate is equatorial, hot and humid. The dry season runs from June to September with an average of 30ºC and the rainy season runs from October to May with an average temperature that can exceed 40ºC.


The Republic of the Congo is divided into 10 regions (regions) and one commune, the capital Brazzaville. These are:

  • Bouenza
  • Cuvette
  • Cuvette-Ouest
  • Kouilou
  • Lekoumou
  • Commune of Brazzaville
  • Likouala
  • Niari
  • Plateaus
  • Puddle
  • Sangha

The regions are subdivided into forty-six districts.


In the 16th century, the territory of present-day Congo was the seat of the Bantu kingdoms of Luango and Kacongo. Followed by the bateke kingdom of Anzico, they participated in the slave trade for the English and French.

In 1880, Makoko Iloo, Bateke king, signed with Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, the Makoko treaty, which authorized France to create a commercial establishment in exchange for military aid. This served for the French to occupy the bateke territory militarily. Thus began the French colonization. Anti-colonial movements soon emerged.

The friar Fulbert Youlou, supported by the Balali, created the Democratic Union of African Interests in 1956. Youlou was elected president of the republic in November 1959. On 15 August as as 1960 the country gained full independence. Youlou established an autocratic and corrupt regime. The growing mass movement never accepted his policy and the protest against corruption and repression of union activities erupted in a popular uprising in the so-called three glorious days of August 13-15, 1963.

Youlou was replaced by Alphonse Massemba Debat, who forced the withdrawal of French troops stationed in the country and with his prime minister, Pascal Lissouba, created the National Revolutionary Movement. In January 1969, Massemba Debat resigned and was replaced by Marien Ngouabi. The 1970 constitution created the People’s Republic of the Congo. In 1973 a new Constitution was promulgated.

In March 1977 President Ngouabi was assassinated and the leadership of the country was entrusted to a Military Committee chaired by Denis Sassou Nguesso. The following month, the Committee announced the appointment of Joachim Yombi Opango as president of the republic.

In February 1979 Yhombi Opango and the Military Committee relinquished their powers, handing them over to the Central Committee of the Congolese Labor Party. After the March elections, Denis Sassou Nguesso became the new president of the republic. Sassou Nguesso maintained economic relations with Eastern Europe, with the United States and France.

In December 1990 the country adopted multipartism. André Milongo assumed the post of Prime Minister in July 1991. In the August 1992 elections, Pascal Lissouba succeeded Sassou Nguesso. Lissouba appointed Jacques Yhombi Opango Prime Minister.

In 1994 an agreement between the opposition and the government marked the beginning of a ceasefire. Lissouba accepted the adjustment plan proposed by the International Monetary Fund. In June 1997 civil war broke out when the government tried to arrest Sassou Nguesso. In November, Lissouba was defeated by the opposing forces. Nguesso formed a new government in Brazzaville.

In November 1999, a ceasefire agreement was signed between Nguesso and the resistance forces. Nguesso released prisoners and many rebels surrendered their weapons during the year 2000. After the war, the first presidential elections took place in February 2002, with Denis Sassou Nguesso elected president.

Brazzaville (Republic of the Congo)

Brazzaville. It is the capital and administrative and financial center of the Republic of the Congo and the main city of the country. It is located on the banks of the Congo River, on the African continent. About a third of the population of the Republic of the Congo lives in the capital with a total of 1,326,975 residents. See population of Republic of the Congo.


The city was founded in 1880 by the Italian count Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, who at that time was working on exploration expeditions in the service of France. The place where the city is currently located was in times prior to the arrival of the French a village called Ntamo, but from its foundation it took the name of the French explorer. The founding of this city marked the beginning of the colony of French Congo and Brazzaville quickly became the capital of the colony of French Equatorial Africa. Between 1921 and 1934 a rail link with Pointe-Noire was built, and 23,000 Africans died during its construction.

In 1944 after World War II, Brazzaville hosted a conference that went down in history as the Brazzaville Conference, in which representatives from Free France and those from the French African colonies met. At this meeting, the Brazzaville Declaration was drawn up and approved, which attempted to redefine the relations between the metropolis and its colonies. In 1960, after the independence of the Republic of the Congo, the city became the capital of the country. In the 1990s due to the civil wars that destroyed and bathed the country in blood, the city suffered a significant and noticeable reduction in its population that migrated to other regions seeking protection and better living conditions.


It is located next to the Congo River in the interior of the African continent 506 km from the Atlantic Ocean and south of the Equator, specifically on its right bank, just in front of Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo formerly called Zaire. The city is located between the coordinates: 4 ° 16′S 15 ° 17′E? and at a height of 317 meters above sea level (meters above sea level) surrounded by a huge savannah. These two cities are the two national capitals of the world that are closest to each other.

Kinshasa also called Kinshasa is located on the southern bank of the Congo River just in front of Brazzaville, which constitutes a curious geographical detail where two national capitals are located on opposite banks of the same river and this phenomenon is only repeated in South America where Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, and Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay, are also on opposite sides, but this time from the Río de la Plata.. In order to differentiate the capitals between the two African countries that bear the word “Congo” in their name, the Republic of the Congo is known as Congo-Brazzaville and the Democratic Republic of the Congo as Congo-Kinshasa.


The industrial branch is the one that predominates in the economy of Brazzaville, among which railway material factories, agri-food industries, chemical industries and soap dishes stand out, among others. The city also has the most important airport in the country, the Maya-Maya, as well as several shipyards.

Important buildings

Among the buildings of greatest historical, architectural and patrimonial value in the city are the Basilica of Santa Ana with its peculiar green roofs, the house of Charles de Gaulle, the Nabemba Tower, the Congress Palace, the Marien Nguouabi Mausoleum, the Brazzaville Zoo and the Poto-Poto School of Painting.

Republic of the Congo State Overview