Romania Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Romania
Today (2018) around 19.5 million people live in Romania. According to directoryaah, the population growth, which increased enormously after the Second World War, has been falling slightly for some time by -0.3%. In relation to the entire country, the Romanians make up the largest ethnic group in Romania with almost 90% of the population. From a regional perspective, however, certain ethnic minorities may predominate in some regions. This applies above all to the main settlement areas of Hungarians in southeastern Transylvania, the Szeklerland, as well as in the border area with Hungary, where the Hungarians, who make up only 6.5% of the total population of Romania, make up the majority of the population. The former territorial disputes between Hungary and Romania have eased since the 1989 revolution.
The Roma, who are distributed all over the country, are the third largest population group in Romania with around 3.3%. They are often worse off socially and economically than the other ethnic groups.
The one until the middle of the previous one. Century in Transylvania and in the Banat still high proportion of German-speaking Saxons and Danube Swabians has now fallen to 0.2%. Other minorities for whom a seat in the Chamber of Deputies is assigned regardless of the votes cast are the Ukrainians in Bukovina and Maramureș; the Russian Lipovans, the Turks and Tartars in Dobruja; Serbs and the Slovaks and Czechs in the Banat.
Depending on the individual nationalities, different languages are used regionally in Romania, especially Hungarian, but the official language is Romanian, which is spoken by 91% of the country’s population. English and French are taught as foreign languages in Romania, and German in Transylvania and the Banat. This means that communication in one of these three languages is usually problem-free when traveling through Romania.
Transport network in Romania
Romania’s road network comprised around 84,000 km in 2013, of which around 50,000 km were paved. The planned motorway network in Romania with a total length of 2710 km is under construction. Around 750 km were completed in 2019 and a further 223 km are under construction. The use of the motorways in Romania is subject to a toll, which requires the purchase of a corresponding vignette before driving. While the motorways and major national roads are in good condition, the other roads are hardly comparable, especially in border regions or rural regions with Western European conditions. In addition, there are dangers from slow and unlit horse-drawn vehicles and the fact that current speed limits are often ignored by the local population.
The total length of the Romanian rail network is 20,730 km, of which 3,292 km are electrified. Compared to other European countries, the route network and the rolling stock need to be modernized overall, with the Romanian State Railways, as the operator of the network, slowly meeting this need, for example by replacing the outdated long-distance trains. In addition to Bucharest, important travel hubs with large passenger stations can be found in Ploieşti, Arad, Constanța, Klausenburg, Kronstadt, Craiova and Timişoara. From Bucharest there are daily direct international connections to Belgrade, Budapest, Chișinău, Istanbul, Kiev, Moscow, Prague, Bratislava, Sofia, Warsaw and Vienna.
International airports through which Romania can be reached for the purpose of travel are in Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Târgu Mureş, Baia Mare, Oradea, Satu Mare, Arad and Constantia.
The most important sea ports in Romania are in Constanta and Midia. Passenger ships regularly sail from the Danube port of Tulcea to the Danube Delta during the summer season. Private boat operators offer taxi-like crossings to Ismajil in Ukraine. There are also larger inland ports for freight and cruise travel in Braila, Galati and Giurgiu.
Politics and economy in Romania
Romania has a semi-presidential system of government with the president as head of state. The president is directly elected by the people for a term of five years, which can be extended once for five years by re-election. He represents the state, is responsible for compliance with the constitution and the functioning of public authorities, and appoints the prime minister as head of government. At the same time he mediates between the state and society and is commander in chief of the armed forces.
The parliament, which consists of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, is responsible for national legislation. The Chamber of Deputies has 329 and the Senate 136 seats. The parliamentarians are elected in a mixed person and proportional representation for a legislative period of four years. Only parties move into parliament that have achieved more than five percent of all votes cast. Eighteen seats in parliament are reserved for members of parliament from ethnic minorities.
Due to the powers that be exercised by the President and Head of Government, Romania’s democracy is partially defective or incomplete. In the recent past this has been expressed, for example, in the government’s efforts to restrict the independence of the judiciary and the secret services under the pretext of combating an alleged shadow state. The legislative initiative presented by the government to pardon hundreds of officials accused of abuse of office could only be averted after violent protests from the population.
According to ebizdir, Romania’s economy recovered from a depression during the global financial crisis in 2009 and 2010, initially with a 2 percent growth. With a BPI of around 240 billion US dollars and growth of around 7%, Romania’s economy will be one of the fastest growing economies in Europe as well as one of the fastest growing countries in the world thanks to the sustained positive economic development. According to estimates, the share of the service sector in GDP is over 50% and the share of the industrial sector around 35% while the agricultural sector has now shrunk to below 5% of GDP after record growth in 2004.
Romania’s diverse industrial products include electronic devices such as computers, telecommunications equipment, consumer electronics and semiconductors, as well as vehicles, ships, various aircraft, medicines, textiles and food. In addition, raw products from the chemical industry and steel are produced. The natural resources of Romania include the energy sources natural gas, crude oil, coal as well as salt and gold. Agricultural products are grain, wool, grapefruit, sugar, potatoes and egg, dairy and meat products. In the service sector, there is steady demand for tourism, which has triggered increased investment in this sector.
At around 4.5% (2018), the unemployment rate is well below the European Union average, but one fifth of the Romanian population is at risk of poverty. In Romania, corruption is unfortunately an everyday habit on many levels and is one of the country’s most serious problems.