Russia Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Russia
According to directoryaah, the population of Russia is very unevenly distributed. A large part of the population (85%) lives in the European part of the country, which only covers 23% of Russian territory. In terms of area, the far larger part, the Asian part of Russia, therefore only has 15% of the total population. The number of residents is distributed very differently and thus varies from 362 residents per km² in the capital and its surroundings to less than one resident per km² in the northeast and in the Russian Far East.
The national and official language is Russian, with more than a hundred different languages spoken in the country.
Politics and Economy in Russia
Russia is a democratic, federal constitutional state with a republican form of government. This system is a mixture of presidential and parliamentary systems. The president is the highest point in the state and is elected by the people for a period of six years. He determines the guidelines of politics and is commander in chief of the armed forces. He also represents the country both internally and externally. His job also includes the task of appointing and enacting the government.
Russia is a developed industrial and agricultural country. The country is also a founding member of the Eurasian Economic Union, which has existed since January 1, 2015. The leading industrial sectors are mechanical engineering as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metal processing. The chemical and petrochemical industries as well as the wood, light and food industries are also well developed.
According to ebizdir, the Russian economic model has the characteristics of a corporatist economy under the leadership of the state. Institutions were introduced by law to bundle state activities in strategically important areas. These state holdings are not subject to any authority, but only to the President.
Transport network in Russia
Most major Russian cities have a well-developed public transport network. Due to the enormous area of the country, however, it is difficult to reach remote places by land. Air traffic is of great importance. There are regular flights to several international airports in different cities.
The quality of the road network in Russia varies greatly, and its expansion cannot keep pace with the ever-increasing volume of road traffic. At the turn of the millennium, it covered a total of around 540,000 kilometers, two thirds of which were paved. A spatially and seasonally continuous road connection from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific has only existed since 2003. Outside the metropolitan areas, the trunk roads are usually not developed as motorways or expressways, and even on larger, wide roads, the directional lanes are not separated from one another by guard rails. The most important trunk road in Russia is the European route 30, which ends in Siberia.
The road density in Russia is very low with 40 meters of road per square kilometer. This is due, among other things, to the very low population density in large parts of the country. The density of the network decreases sharply from west to east: the further you are from Moscow to the east, the worse the road conditions. Nevertheless, the majority of freight traffic between Western Europe and Russia is carried out by road.
Cities and regions in Russia
According to Article 65 of the Russian Constitution, Russia is divided into 85 federal subjects. These include 22 republics, 9 regions (Krai), 46 areas (oblast), 3 cities of federal rank (Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Sevastopol), 1 autonomous region and 4 autonomous counties. The fact that the subjects of international law Crimea and Sevastopol belong to Russia is not recognized internationally. The republics were defined according to the dominant non-Russian ethnic groups in each case, although their borders do not always coincide with the ethnic groups, while the areas in the other, predominantly Russian-inhabited parts of the country were formed according to purely administrative aspects.
The ten largest cities in Russia are (former names from Soviet times in brackets):
- Moscow – Central Russia (12.23 million residents)
- Saint Petersburg (Leningrad) – Northwest Russia (5.28 million residents)
- Novosibirsk – Siberia (1.60 million residents)
- Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk) – Urals (1.46 million residents)
- Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky) – Volga (1.26 million residents)
- Kazan – Volga (1.23 million residents)
- Chelyabinsk – Urals (1.20 million residents)
- Omsk – Siberia (1.18 million residents)
- Samara (Kuibyshev) – Volga (1.17 million residents)
- Rostov-on-Don – Southern Russia (1.13 million residents)
Moscow, the cosmopolitan capital of Russia, is located in the west of the country and is traversed by the Moscow River. In the historic city center is the Kremlin, the official residence of the President, in whose arsenal treasures from the Tsarist era are housed. In front of the walls of the Kremlin is the Red Square, the symbolic center of Russia with the Lenin Mausoleum, the extensive collection of the History Museum and St. Basil’s Cathedral with its colorful onion domes.
Saint Petersburg is a Russian port city on the Baltic Sea. It served as the capital of the tsarist empire for over 2 centuries and was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great, who was immortalized in the city’s landmark, the bronze equestrian statue. The city continues to be the cultural center of Russia, including the state-of-the-art Mariinsky Theater with opera and ballet performances and the Russian Museum, which shows Russian art from Orthodox icons to the works of Kandinsky.