Science and Culture of Peru
There are 16 commercial banks in the country. The only bank with the right to issue is the Central Reserve Bank. Operations with securities are carried out on the Lima Stock Exchange (profitability index – 12.2%). The average interest rate of an interbank loan is 32% in national currency, 13% in dollars. The level of dollarization of the banking system is 70%. The low level of inflation made it possible to maintain the stability of the national currency.
To con. In 2002, the total amount of accumulated foreign investment in the economy exceeded $11.3 billion (at the end of 2001, this figure was $10.8 billion). Capital investments come mainly from Spain ($2.4 billion), the UK ($2.3 billion), the United States ($2.0 billion) and the Netherlands ($1.3 billion) and are directed to the communications sector ( 26.5% of the total), manufacturing (16.2%), finance (16.1%) and mining (15.0%).
Tax collection – approx. USD 6.5 billion, incl. revenues from value added tax (18%) – 50%, real estate tax – 24%. The balance of payments deficit is 2.1% of GDP. Government debt to con. 2002 USD 25.4 billion (46.2% of GDP), incl. external borrowings — USD 20.0 billion. Gold and foreign exchange reserves – 9.9 billion US dollars.
The minimum wage is $117 per month. The average salary of civil servants is $254. The average monthly income of those employed in the private sector is $681. In the structure of the income of the population, 60% is accounted for by social contributions, 40% – by wages. The employer or the employee contributes 9% of the monthly monetary remuneration or income received to the state pension fund. Another 3% is transferred to the social security fund, which provides medical services to the population. Participants in the private pension system have the so-called property rights. individual capitalization accounts, to which 13% of wages or income are transferred monthly. Below the poverty line is 54.8% of the inhabitants of Peru. The poorest 10% of the population account for 2% of income, the richest 10% of Peruvians – 35%.
Foreign trade turnover (billion US dollars, 2002) 15.1, export 7.7, import 7.4. Main export commodities: non-ferrous metal concentrates (46% of export value), fishery products (14%), agricultural products, incl. sugar, coffee and cocoa (10%), textiles (9%). Imports are dominated by industrial raw materials, machinery and equipment, and consumer goods. The main foreign trade partners are the USA (26% of the trade turnover), the EU states, the countries of the Andean Community, China, and Japan. Trade turnover with the Russian Federation in 2002 – 64.8 million US dollars, incl. import – 48.5 million dollars.
Science and culture of Peru
Peru has a rich scientific and cultural tradition dating back to ancient high civilizations. After the Spanish conquest in 1551, the Senior University of San Marcos was founded in Lima, but the modern system of knowledge appeared in con. 19 – beg. 20th century In 1866, the Faculty of Exact Sciences was founded at the university, which began to perform coordinating scientific functions in the country. According to Searchforpublicschools, the Higher Institute of Nuclear Energy was established in 1955 under the Committee for the Control of Atomic Energy; in 1960, the Institute of the Sea of Peru was established. The National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (1969) was called upon to coordinate all research activities in the country. It is part of the university system, which also includes the National University of San Agustin (Arequipa), founded in 1828; University of San Antonio Abad (Cusco); National Engineering University (Lima);
In ancient Peru, apparently, there was a musical-dance drama. Separate works have been preserved, modified in theatrical performances after the Spanish conquest. The most significant of these works is Apu Olyantai. Chronicles of the 16th century tell about the life of the Inca state and the course of its conquest by the Spaniards. The most significant of the chroniclers was Chiesa de León (1519–54). An idealized and, at times, utopian description of Inca society was given by Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (1539–1616), who is considered one of the founders of Peruvian literature and historiography.
Even during the colonial period, not only religious, but also secular theatrical performances became widespread in Peru, a professional theater and its own dramaturgy developed. After achieving independence in the 19th century. theatrical activity in Peru has experienced its heyday. In Lima, the theaters Colisso, De Commedia, Commedia Nacional, and others operated.
Melgar (1790-1815) was the ancestor of the romantic poetry of Peru during the War of Independence. In the 19th century descriptions of the life of urban and rural life in the style of costumbrism became widespread. The social themes and the influence of anarchism were reflected in his work by the poet and critic, director of the National Library M. Gonzalez Prada (1848-1918). The work of R. Palma (1833-1919) is saturated with the spirit of critical realism, but with an emphasis on the historical theme.
Social themes occupied a prominent place in the literary work of the great poet, reformer of language and versification, novelist and critic S. Vallejo (1892-1938). The Indian theme was developed by the ethnographer and writer E. Lopez Albujar (1874-1966) and the Indianist H.M. Arguedas (1913-69). An important role in the development of journalism and literary criticism was played by H.K. Mariategui (1894-1930). The novelist S. Alegria (1909–67) is considered a classic of Peruvian literature. A major contribution to its development was made by the novelist, poet, and literary critic S. Salazar Bondi (1924–65). The most famous modern Peruvian writer is the novelist, literary critic and politician M. Vargas Llosa (b. 1936).
Peru has a rich tradition of painting. In the 17th – 18th centuries. here the “school of Cuzco” was formed, which determined the direction of development of the fine arts of Peru.
Among the composers who continued the richest musical traditions of ancient Peru, H.B. Alcedo (author of the national anthem since 1821), author of the first national opera by J. Valle Riestra (Ollantay, 1900) and J. Perez de Bocanegra.