Science and Culture of Vietnam
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is carrying out profound transformations in the field of education and science. Fundamental changes in these areas, according to the Vietnamese leadership, will help Vietnam achieve its strategic goals – to modernize the country, integrate into the world economy and become a full member of the world community.
There is a radical restructuring of the education system both in form and content. Paid education is being introduced in secondary and higher state schools, and the creation of private schools and universities, centers and courses for the training and retraining of managerial personnel is being stimulated. There is a process of “commercialization” and “marketization” in the curricula of secondary and higher schools.
According to microedu, there are currently approx. 16,000 primary and secondary schools with 19.9 million students in the 2001/02 academic year. In addition, there are more than 700 specialized schools and colleges (with 2 million students), 247 vocational schools and technical schools (with about 200,000 students). In Vietnam ca. 100 universities (6 private), where they train in 200 specialties (650 thousand students).
There are 170 research and development bureaus employing 30,000 scientists. Here, the emphasis is on the study of leading branches of science, such as high technology, computer science, biology, and new materials.
The country has established the National Center for Natural Sciences and Technology and the National Center for Social Sciences and Humanities. In 1996, the first “Vietnamese Encyclopedia” was published, which included almost 40 thousand articles prepared by the efforts of 1,300 Vietnamese and foreign scientists.
Now in Vietnam there are St. 6 thousand doctors and candidates of sciences, 1.27 million graduates of institutes and colleges and 14 thousand people. with postgraduate education.
The original national culture has a rich heritage with centuries-old traditions – festivities, music, dance, folklore, theater, fine arts, etc. Now it, perceiving the riches of modern world culture, acquires a new content and national flavor.
Vietnamese theater includes such traditional genres as teo (folk theatre), tuong (classical theatre), cai luong (renovated theatre) and ca hue (hue songs). These genres harmoniously combine music, singing, recitative, recitation, dance and facial expressions. The modern genre of kit noy (dramatic theater) is of European origin, but it is filled with national content and has firmly entered the cultural life of society.
There are 2,446 public libraries and reading rooms in the country with 17.2 million copies. books. The average attendance is 15 million people. in year.
After the restoration of peace in 1954, the Museum of History, the Museum of the Revolution and the Museum of the Army were established in Hanoi. The Museum of Fine Arts was opened in 1965. On May 19, 1990, the Ho Chi Minh Museum was opened on the occasion of the centenary of the birth of the first Vietnamese president. There are also the Oceanological Museum in Nha Trang, the Cham Museum in Quang Nam Province and the Museum of Ethnology in Hanoi. In general, there are 285 museums and exhibition centers in the country. International organizations contributed $420,000 for the preservation and restoration of the ancient streets of Hanoi, the mausoleums of the emperors of the last Nguyen dynasty in Hue and the ancient city of Hoi An.
Woodcarving, lacquer, silk and oil painting, rice straw products and handicrafts remain very popular in Vietnam. The most ancient form of Vietnamese painting is lubok – paintings painted with water colors on silk or specially processed paper. Hanoi luboks are made by contour printing from wooden clichés, followed by coloring.
The earliest works of literature that have come down to us date back to the 10th century. For many centuries, two literatures developed in parallel in the country, one in Chinese, which was then the literary language, the other in Tynom, the transcribed national language. Liquidation at the beginning 20th century The traditional education system, the replacement of hieroglyphs with Latinized Vietnamese writing, the development of printing created the conditions for the birth of modern Vietnamese literature.
Between 1945 and 1975, Vietnamese literature focused mainly on glorifying the heroism of the people and mobilizing the masses to fight against external aggression and for national reunification. After 1986 literature reflects the course of the country’s renewal. Stories, novellas and novels highlight previously forbidden plots about losses and victims in the war, about the negative phenomena of modern everyday life, such as corruption, dishonesty, wastefulness. Such works attract the attention of readers at home and abroad. Many of them have been translated into English, French, Chinese, Russian, Japanese and other languages.