Sudan Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Sudan
Due to the independence of South Sudan, which came into force in 2011, of an estimated 47 million Sudanese, the remaining part of Sudan still has over 36 million residents. The information on this and other data derived from it are not reliable, however, as the authors do not state unequivocally whether the data relate to the state before 2011 or after.
The population growth in Sudan is around 1.7%, almost 40% of the population is under 15 years old.
According to directoryaah, 36% of the Sudanese are Sudanese Arabs with Arabic roots. The Dinka make up the second largest proportion of the population with 12%, but today mostly live in South Sudan. The Nubians, represented with 9% of the population, settle in the north of Sudan as far as Egypt. Other tribes are the Nuer, the Azande, the Bari and members of the Kushitic peoples, with the black African population of the Sudanese totaling almost 50%. A small proportion of foreign residents consists mainly of refugees from various wars and Europeans.
English is widely used as the official language in Sudan. In addition, Arabic is spoken for the most part, with Sudanese Arabic being the lingua franca in the south and south Sudan. Other languages in use in Sudan, depending on the settlement centers of the individual tribes, are Nilo-Saharan, Cushitic and Ubangic languages.
Politics and economics in Sudan
According to the Constitution of 1998, Sudan is an Islamic Republic and has been ruled by a military government since 1989. Although Sunni Islam has not been elevated to the status of a constitutional state religion, it is preferred by the government and is in fact treated as a state religion. The current Sharia laws are part of a state process of Islamization and, according to the 1998 constitution, are considered the primary source of law. The president is elected directly by the people every five years. Sudan’s political system is seen as authoritarian and not free. On April 11, 2019, in the wake of a military coup, the incumbent president was ousted and the constitution was repealed. Until the planned new election in 2022, a “Supreme Council” consisting of five military personnel and five civilians as well as an eleventh person.
Although the standard of living in Sudan is low worldwide and wealth is very unevenly distributed, Sudan is the fourth largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa after Nigeria, South Africa and Angola. According to ebizdir, Sudan has abundant deposits of mineral resources such as crude oil, iron, marble, gold and uranium and has a gross domestic product per capita of over 2,000 euros, mainly due to oil exports to China. Agriculture accounts for around a third of Sudan’s economic output. The annual economic growth of 3% is slowed down considerably by the ongoing conflict with South Sudan and the high national debt.
Culture and sights in Sudan
The multiethnic composition of the Sudanese population, which was not least the cause of various conflicts in Sudan, results in an extraordinarily high level of cultural diversity, which is evident in the architecture, in traditional handicrafts or in the production of traditional swords in the east of the country. Each of the many ethnic groups has its own cultural forms of expression in language, religion, customs and social relationships and leaves the question of belonging to the Arabs, Afro-Arabs or Africans still open.
With the “Khartoum School”, a painting style developed between the 1950s and 1960s with the Sudanese painter Ibrahim El-Salahi that combines Sudanese traditions with Islamic and Western content. In addition to remarkable Sudanese literature, which set a literary climax with the works of the well-known Sudanese authors Tayeb Salih and Leila Aboulela, Sudanese film culture has established itself as a trailblazer for African cinema.
The earliest evidence of Sudanese culture can be found in the archaeological sites of Meroë and Napata. The field of ruins on Mount Barkal in the Nile Valley, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is worth seeing with several temples, important secular buildings and a pyramid necropolis, which belonged to the ancient city of Napata. Along the Nile in Sudan numerous other testimonies to past cultures can be found such as the remains of the Christian kingdom Makuria in Alt Dongola, the Amun temple in Soleb, the Semna fortress south of the 2nd cataract, the remains of the capital of the first kingdom of Kush in Kerma or the pyramids of Kurru and Nuri.
The Sanganeb coral reef and the Suakin Archipelago in the Red Sea, the Dinder National Park or the Sudd wetland on the White Nile with numerous hippos and crocodiles are among the natural beauties in Sudan that are popular with divers.