Swaziland State Overview

Swaziland State Overview

According to abbreviationfinder, Swaziland is a country located in southern Africa, centered at about 26 ° 49’S, 31 ° 38’E. It is relatively small in the area, similar in size to Kuwait. Swaziland is a landlocked country, bordering South Africa in three cardinal points, except in the east, where it borders the borders of Mozambique. The country, inhabited mainly by Bantu speaking people of Swaziland, is named after the nineteenth century King Mswati II, of whom the people also have his name.

The prevalence of HIV / AIDS in Swaziland, the rate is the highest in the world at 38.8%, and is much higher than that of sub- Saharan Africa overall (7.5%) and globally (1.1%). Life expectancy at birth in Swaziland is just over 30 years. King Sobhuza II, who died in 1982, was one of the longest reigning monarchs of all time.

History

Artifacts, indicating human activity dating back to the early Stone Age, 200,000 years ago have been found in the kingdom of Swaziland. Prehistoric rock art paintings date from ca. 25,000 BC and continue until the 19th century.

The first residents of the area were Khoisan hunter-gatherers. They were largely replaced by the Bantu tribes during the Bantu migrations. Evidence of agriculture and the use of iron dates from approximately the 9th century, and people speaking languages ancestral to the present-day Sotho and Nguni began the arrangement of languages no later than the 11th century.

The ruling Dlamini lineage had chiefships in the region in the 18th century. The expanding Swaziland (also sometimes written as Suozi [citation needed]) kingdom was created by King Sobhuza I in the early 9th century. Shortly after the first whites began to settle in the area. In the 1890s the Republic of South Africa in the Transvaal claimed sovereignty over Swaziland, but never fully established itself in power. After the Second Boer War of 1899 – 1902, Swaziland became a British protectorate. The country was granted independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on September 6, 1968. Since then, Swaziland has seen a struggle between activists for democracy and the monarchy. Swaziland has been the framework for a state of emergency since 1973.

Geography

  • Geographic Coordinates: 26 30 S, 31 30 E
  • Continent: Africa
  • Total area: 17,364 sq km land: 17,204 sq km water: 160 sq km
  • Maritime Coast: 0 km (Mediterranean)
  • Irrigated Area: 500 square km (2003)
  • Geography of Swaziland.- It is bordered to the north, south and west by the Republic of South Africa and to the east by Mozambique.

The west of the country is mountainous and is dominated by the foothills of the Drakensberg Mountains, which reaches its maximum height on Mount Emlemle of 1862 meters. To the east begins an undulating plateau about 600 m high, the Middle Veld. In the extreme east of the country is the Lebombo mountain range. The main rivers are the Komati River, the Black Mbuluzi and the Ingwavuma River. Despite being a very small country, it has a great climatic variety. The west, Upper Veld, has a subtropical climate with rainfall exceeding 1000 mm per year. To the east it has a semi-arid tropical climate. The central-eastern region, the Bajo Veld, with an altitude of 300 meters, is the driest area with about 600 mm per year of rain.

Physical geography

Located in southeastern Africa, on the eastern slopes of the Drakensberg Mountains. It limits to the north, west and south with South Africa and to the east with Mozambique. The largest city is Manzini. It has a high mortality associated with the AIDS virus that affects 38.8% of the adult population (2003 estimate); it is currently the country with the highest percentage of infected. Life expectancy is only 32.62 years.

Economy

More than 80% of the population lives on subsistence agricultural activities. 60% of the land is owned by the monarchy. It exports sugar and wood pulp, but the mining activity has lost importance. The main trading partner is South Africa, which receives 60% of Swaziland’s exports and is responsible for almost all imports. Customs duties and remittances by emigrants are substantial sources of income. The gross domestic product per capita is US $ 5,500 per year. With a GDP of 5,646 million USD in 2005.

Agriculture and rural development

For the 70% of the world’s poor living in rural areas, agriculture is the main source of income and work. But the depletion and degradation of land and water seriously affect the ability to grow food and other products necessary to sustain livelihoods in these areas and meet the needs of the urban population. The data presented contain measures of inputs, outputs and agricultural productivity compiled by the United Nations Organization (UN) for Food and Agriculture (FAO).

Science and Technology

Technological innovation, normally stimulated by governments, promotes industrial growth and helps improve the living standards of the population. These data are intended to shed light on the technological base of countries and include: research and development, scientific and technical journal articles, high-tech exports, royalties, and licensing and patent and trademark rights. Sources include the Institute for Statistics UNESCO, the National Science Foundation of the United States, the Statistics Division of the UN, the IMF and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Ethnography

The population is composed mainly of Swazis and other African ethnic groups at 97%. The rest are of European origin. [writes] Languages

  • English and Swazi (siSwati in Swazi) are official, although government affairs are dealt with in English.
  • There are two other minority languages, Zulu and Tsonga.
  • Syncretism (40%) under the name Iglesia Zionista (Church of Zion)
  • Catholicism (20%)
  • Animism (10%)
  • Others (30%)

Christianity is the official religion but there are no limitations to the practice of other religions.

Government and administration

Absolute monarchy. King Mswati III ascended the throne on April 25, 1986. The 8 as February as 2006 came into force the new constitution. The prime minister is appointed by the king from among the lower house parliamentarians. Currently the Prime Minister is Themba Dlamini, since November 14, 2003. The legislative power is bicameral: the Senate is composed of 10 members appointed by the Lower House and 20 appointed by the king, while the Lower House has 65 members of which 55 are elected by popular vote, one for each tinkhundla, and the remaining ten are also appointed by the monarch. They all serve a five-year term. It is divided into 4 districts: Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini and Shiselweni. Lobamba is the seat of the legislative power. It is one of the African, Caribbean and Pacific states. It belongs to the British Commonwealth of Nations since its independence in 1968. The anthem is called Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati

Political parties

Previously illegal, their current status is up for debate. Candidates for legislative elections are appointed by local councils. See population of Swaziland.

Age distribution

  • 0-14 years: 37.8% (men 261,762 / women 255,828)
  • 15-64 years: 58.6% (men 399,746 / women 403,681)
  • 65 years and over: 3.6% (men 20,472 / women 28,935) (2011 est.)

Growth rate

1,204% (2011 est.)

Birth rate

26.63 births / 1,000 population (2011 est.)

Mortality rate

14.6 deaths / 1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant (s) / 1,000 residents (2011 est.)

Distribution by sex

  • at birth: 1.03 male (s) / female
  • under 15 years: 1.02 male (s) / female
  • 15-64 years: 0.98 male (s) / female
  • 65 years and over: 0.72 male (s) / female
  • total population: 0.99 male (s) / female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

  • total: 63.09 deaths / 1,000 births
  • males: 67.14 deaths / 1,000 births
  • women: 58.93 deaths / 1,000 births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 48.66 years
  • male: 48.93 years
  • female: 48.39 years (2011 est.)

Fertility rate

3.11 infants born / woman (2011 est.)

HIV AIDS

  • incidence rate in the adult population 25.9% (2009 est.)

HIV AIDS

  • population infected with HIV / AIDS 180,000 (2009 est.)

HIV AIDS

  • deaths 7,000 (2009 est.)

Alphabetization rate

  • total population: 81.6%
  • male: 82.6%
  • women: 80.8% (2003 est.)

Media

In 2005 there were about 35,000 fixed telephone lines and 200,000 cell phones. In 2004 there were 3 AM and 2 FM radio stations, 5 television channels and 7 repeaters. There are 2,472 Internet servers (2006). There are different means of communication

Railways

total: 301 km narrow gauge: 301 km 1,067-m gauge (2008)

Roads

total: 3,594 km paved: 1,078 km unpaved: 2,516 km (2002)

Airports

15 (2010)

Airports with paved runways

  • total: 2
  • over 3,047 m: 1
  • 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2010)

Airports with unpaved runways

  • total: 13
  • 914 to 1,523 m: 6
  • under 914 m: 7 (2010)

Armed forces

  • Military Forces – minimum age 18-30 years old for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; only HIV-negative applicants accepted; compulsory HIV testing required (2010)
  • Military Forces – availability of men aged 16-49: 344,038 (2010)
  • Military Forces – Men aged 16-49: 201,853 Men aged 16-49: 175,477 (2010 est.)
  • Military forces – residents reaching the minimum age annually male: 16,168

Female: 15,763 (2010 est.)

  • Military budget – percentage of GDP 4.7% of GDP (2006)

Swaziland State Overview