Partly under pressure from abroad, various guerrilla groups tried to achieve mutual cooperation. In both 1980 and 1981, attempts were made to unite the resistance in a Grand Council of representatives of the various tribes, established in May 1980 in the Pakistani city of Peshawar. Both personal feuds and ideological contradictions wrecked these efforts; there were ethnic and regional differences, but there was also the important contradiction between Islamic fundamentalist and more secular movements, which stood in the way of close cooperation. Despite its structural divisions, the Afghan resistance, which was armed from Iran and Pakistan, managed to put up a strong resistance against the Russian invasion force (ca. 90000 men) and inflicting heavy casualties on the Russians. By the end of 1981, the guerrillas had already controlled large parts of the countryside, constantly disconnected and threatened the Russians and their affiliated Afghan authorities in the cities of Kabul and Kandahar. In the course of 1981 it looked as if the Russians would not succeed in suppressing the resistance. Comparisons with the former American position in Vietnam were already being made. The Russians increased their troops to 120,000 men in 1982. They also built military bases and airfields. Their opponents accused the Russians of using chemical weapons. Under these circumstances, Karmal’s government could exercise little authority. Check cheeroutdoor for Afghanistan Business.