Tajikistan Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Tajikistan
The residents of Tajikistan live mainly in the west as well as in the north of the country. The capital has around 700,000 residents. Thanks to the poor health system, the life expectancy of the locals is only 65 years. For the same reason, the infant mortality rate is alarmingly high at 11%. According to directoryaah, the population is growing by an average of 1.4% annually.
The Tajiks themselves make up around 80% of the population. You are an Iranian people and live in Central Asia. Various Uzbeks and Kyrgyz minorities live in the east of the country. Citizens from Russia, Ukraine, Germany and other countries can also be found. However, the proportion of foreigners in the country is extremely low, as a large number of non-Tajiks left the country after the exit of the Soviet Union and in the course of the civil war that followed.
Politics and Economy in Tajikistan
Tajikistan is a presidential republic in which the president is directly elected as head of state for seven years. His sphere of influence includes the representation of the republic at home and abroad as well as the appointment of the cabinet and the head of government with the consent of parliament. The so-called bicameral parliament consists of the Majlisi Namoyondagon (lower house) and the Majlisi Milli (upper house). Elections are held every five years, with 25 members of the Upper House being elected indirectly by representatives of the regions and eight being appointed by the President.
Tajikistan was already the poorest of the former Soviet republics and is now one of the poorest countries in the world. The geographical inland location without own access to the sea makes economic development more difficult.
According to ebizdir, the shares of industry in GDP and employment in 2016 were 15.1% and 10.6%, respectively, and those of the service sector were 64.2% and 46.4%, respectively.
Agriculture is still very important. It contributed 20.7% of GDP in 2016, while 43.0% of the workforce worked in agriculture. Only about 7% of the land can be used intensively for agriculture. One focus is the cultivation of cotton. In addition, cattle, sheep and goats are kept and silkworms are bred.
The country has reserves of oil, natural gas and lignite. The most important export good with a share of 50% of the export revenues is aluminum from the aluminum factory TALCO in Tursunsoda; 23% is achieved through the export of electricity, which is mainly generated by hydropower at the Nurek Dam. Further hydropower plants are currently being built or planned with Russian and Chinese support, among others.
The main industries in Tajikistan are mining, metal processing and agriculture. Tajikistan’s economy is heavily dependent on remittances from nearly 1 million foreign stadjiks living and working in Russia. It is estimated that their remittances account for almost 50% of economic output. The international remittance allows Tajikistan to partially offset its high trade deficit.
Transport network in Tajikistan
The entire road network in Tajikistan covers approx. 28,000 km. Because of the predominantly mountainous nature of the country, the traffic network is only sufficiently well developed in the north-west and south-west. Large parts of the east of the country are still completely undeveloped. Accordingly, a lot is handled via air traffic, e.g. via the international airport in Dushanbe. In addition, the capital is connected to the international rail network.
Cities and regions in Tajikistan
Tajikistan is divided into the two provinces of Chatlon and Sughd, the autonomous province of Berg-Badachschan and the district of Nohijahoi tobei dschumhurij, which is directly administered by the central government. The capital Dushanbe has a special administrative status.
The six largest cities in Tajikistan are: