Turin, Piedmont (Italy)
According to biotionary, Turin is the capital of Italy ‘s westernmost region, Piedmont. Turin stands on the banks of the Po River in the central part of the region. In ancient times, there was a settlement of taurins in these places, which in the 1st century AD. was captured by the Romans. Under Emperor Augustus, the Roman city of Augusta Taurinorum was founded in its place. At the beginning of the 15th century, these lands were annexed to the state of Savoy and the city became the residence of the Dukes of Savoy. In the 19th century, grandiose construction began in Turin. Architect Filippo Juvar designed a new look for the city with grandiose baroque buildings. In 1861, the creation of the united Kingdom of Italy was announced in Turin, and Turinbecame its first capital. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the first Italian automobile plant “FIAT” was created here. Today Turin is an important transport hub on the outskirts of the Alps and the second industrial center of Italy after Milan. In addition, Turin is known as the birthplace of Martini vermouth, Ferrero Rocher chocolate and Lavazzo coffee. Often, Turin is called the “capital of the European Baroque”. Most of the city’s palaces and churches were built in this style during the reign of the Dukes of Savoy, and all the royal residences of Turin and its environs have been protected by UNESCO since 1997 as World Heritage Sites. The wide boulevards of Turin with monumental red and yellow buildings and arcades make it look more like a traditional French town than an Italian one.
In the tourist center of Turin, on the main city square Piazza Castello, which since the 14th century has been the core of the state of Savoy, the castle of Palazzo Madama rises . It was built in the 13th century. In 1637, the castle was chosen as the residence of the dowager regent Christina Maria Bourbon, after which they got their name. Today it houses the Museum of Ancient Art with collections of antiquities belonging to the Dukes of Savoy (Etruscan urns, Roman bronzes and Greek vases). Piazza Castello is also home to the Royal Grand Theater and the Royal Maly Theatre.
Nearby is the main residence of the rulers of the Savoy dynasty in Turin – Palazzo Reale. The palace was built in the middle of the 17th century. At the end of the 17th century, an extensive garden was created in the eastern part of the palace. Its designer was Andre Le Nôtre, the author of the park in the Palace of Versailles. At the Palazzo Reale stands the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist the end of the 15th century, to which in the 17th century a chapel was attached, where one of the most important relics of Christianity is stored – the “Turin Shroud” – a four-meter canvas, in which, according to legend, the body of Jesus Christ was wrapped after removing it from the cross. There are prints of a human body on the shroud. Many believers believe that these prints belong to Jesus Christ. A replica of the shroud is exhibited next to the altar of the chapel, while the shroud itself is put on display very rarely – once every 25 years. The ruins of the Roman amphitheater and Roman gates have been preserved near the Cathedral. Also in the complex of the Royal Palace of the Palazzo Reale, the Royal Arsenal is interesting, which contains one of the best collections of weapons in Europe.
Of the other royal residences located in Turin, one can distinguish Palace of Palazzo Carignano, where the king of the Kingdom of Sardinia, Charles Albert, and the first king of a united Italy, Victor Emmanuel II, were born. In addition, the first Italian parliament was located here. Now the palace houses the Risorgimento Museum, dedicated to the creation of a united Italy. The museum contains collections of weapons, paintings and documents from 1848 to the middle of the 20th century. Very beautiful palace Castello del Valentinostanding on the banks of the Po River. In 1856, he laid out the Valentino Park, which in the 20th century was given over to the Botanical Gardens of the University of Turin. The palace itself now houses the Faculty of Architecture of the University.
One of the symbols of Turin is the Mole Antonelliana building . This is the tallest hand-made building in the world, its height together with the spire is 167.5 m. Construction of the building began in 1863 according to the design of the architect Antonelli. It was planned to place a synagogue here, however, when its height reached 113 m, the construction stopped. Mole Antonelliana was completed only in 1888. Since 2000, it has housed the National Museum of Cinematography. – one of the largest film history museums in the world. The museum occupies 5 floors with a total exhibition area of 3200 sq. m. The exhibitions of each floor have a specific theme: the history of cinema, video cameras, movie posters, movie performances and a cinema hall. Inside there is a glass panoramic elevator that takes tourists to the observation deck, located at a height of 85 m in 59 seconds.
In addition to the National Museum of Cinematography, there are other world-famous museums in Turin. First of all, this is the Egyptian Museum “Museo Ejitsuo” with a rich collection of Egyptian antiquities, which are not inferior in importance to the collections of ancient Egyptian art in Cairo. Adjacent to it is the Savoy Gallery. with collections of Italian and Dutch paintings of the 15th century and works by Dutch and Flemish artists belonging to the Savoy dynasty. Here you can see works by Van Dyck, Rembrandt, Poussin, Tintoretto and Jan Brueghel. Of interest is the Gallery of Modern Art, which exhibits works by artists of the 19th and 20th centuries, including works by De Chirico, Otto Dix and Klee. You can learn about the history of the development of the automotive industry at the Automobile History Museum. Some 170 models are on display, including the first Fiat, the first Formula One racing cars and the luxurious Isota Franchini driven by Gloria Swanson in Sunset Boulevard.