Turkey Architecture and Literature
Architecture. – Among the fastest growing countries from the construction industry point of view, Turkey has also produced a considerable number of high quality architecture, not only in İstanbul (v.), Its largest and most vibrant metropolitan area., but also in Ankara, Smyrna and other smaller centers.
According to searchforpublicschools, Levent Kanyon is one of the largest and most eye-catching projects that have marked the new urban scene of İstanbul., built by the Tabanlıoğlu Architecture & Consulting studio in 2006. It is a controversial and gigantic residential, commercial and office complex, which includes, among other things, a 27-storey high tower. Particularly interesting is the work of Emre Arolat, a designer who initially stood out with the Minicity Model park in Antalya, built in 2004, and the Ipekyol yarn factory in Edirne, completed in 2006. In 2013 the studio, in collaboration with the mentioned Tabanlıoğlu Architects group, has completed the imposing Zorlu Center in İstanbul, a large multifunctional complex which houses, among other things, one of the largest dance centers in Turkey. Also in İstanbul there is the Arkadia building (2013), designed by IND studio, Inter.National.Design and characterized by a sober facade, and the small and refined residential building in steel and brick NoXX Apart ments (2014), created by the CM Architecture studio in the elegant Beyoğlu district. Some realizations in the hotel sector are also interesting: for example, the successful Maxx Royal Kemer hotel (2014) by Baraka Architects in Kemer or the Mi’Costa hotel residences (2103) by Uras X Dilekci Architects in Izmir.
Not far from the latter city, in Torbali, we remember the LA cellar (2014), a sober reinforced concrete factory designed by the Kreatif Architects group. In Ankara there is the new headquarters of the builders association (2013) designed by the AVCI studio, characterized by a series of overlapping volumes, covered with metal panels. Finally, among the many achievements in the sports field, the innovative municipal stadium of Konya (2014), partially covered, by the Bahadir Kul Architects studio, should be noted.
In recent years, some of the writers who had given an imprint to the literary movement of the end of the century have disappeared. 19th and early 20th century: the poets Mehmet Akif Ersoy (1873-1936), Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan (1851-1937), Mehmet Emin Yurdakul (1869-1944), the historian Ahmet Refik Altïnay (1881-1937), the novelist Halit Ziva UŞaklïgïl (1869-1945). Others that the Kemalist revolution of 1919-23 found already initiated to the letters have brought in the new current a line of cultural traditions that has attenuated the abrupt detachment from the past. Novelists and short story writers such as Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoǧlu (b.1888), who has seen some of his novels (Nur Baba, Yaban, Sodom ve Gomor) translated into German, French and Italian; Khalide Edib Adïvar (b. 1883), who also writes in English; Resat Nuri Güntekin (b. 1892); Refik Halit Karay (b. 1888), also in novels inclined to the comic genre; Peyami Safa (b. 1899) and others are still considered the best. Among these prevails the realist approach; psychological analysis is carried out successfully in the novels (Bo ǧ azi ç the Mehtaplarï, Ç amlicadaki Enif Ş emiz, Fahim Bey ve biz) by Abdülhak Şinasi Hisar (b. 1885), which describe types and environments of Istanbul half a century ago. Among the most successful and immaturely disappeared young people were Sadri Ertem (1900-43), Mahmut Yesari (1895-1945). Falih Rifki Atay (b.1894) enjoys fame as an essayist and journalist.
In poetry the taste for classical lyric and oriental quantitative metrics, refined by a European culture, survives in Yahya Kemal Bayatlï (b. 1884); the younger ones follow the Western schools of symbolism, surrealism, futurism with Faruk Nafiz (b.1899), Behçet Kemal, Nazim Hikmet (b.1901), Cahit Sïtkï, Oktay Rifat, Orhan Veli, Cahit Külebi, Bedri Rahmi Eyüpoǧlu, Yasar Nabi Hayïr, who in his magazine Varlïk gives expression to the most modern trends.
In the theater, translations and adaptations predominate. A collection of translations of the classics of all literatures, including oriental ones, has reached several hundred volumes (Dünya Edebiyatindan Tercümeler).
The development of erudition, history and philology studies by Fuad Köprülü, Rahmeti Arat, Zeki Velidi, Kilisli Rifat, Abdülbaki Gokpïnarlï, Adnan Adïvar, etc. has been very considerable. Since 1941 the Enc. de l’Isl ā m under the title Islam Ansiklopedisi. A Dil – Tarih – Co ǧ rafya Fakültesi in Ankara was added to the reformed Istanbul University in 1933. The Turkish Historical Society (Tark Tarihi Kurumu) and the Turkish Linguistic Society (Türk Dili Kurumu), founded by Atatürk in 1931-32, have published dozens of volumes with a significant cultural contribution. The current Turkish Prime Minister Şemsettin Günaltay is a well-known scholar of history and chaired the Turkish Historical Society until the assumption of power (January 1949).