Tuvalu Country Overview
Tuvalu, officially Tuvaluan Fakavae Aliki-Malo i Tuvalu, is a state in the southwestern Pacific, with (2019) 11,650 residents; The capital is Funafuti. Tuvalu comprises the Ellice Islands, 4,000 km northeast of Australia, with nine atolls (Nanumea, Nanumanga, Niutao, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti, Nukulaelae, Niulakita).
According to COUNTRYAAH, Tuvalu is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean – Polynesia. It comprises the nine atolls of the Ellice Islands, 4,000 km northeast of Australia. The climate is tropical-maritime; Mainly coconut palms grow, as well as breadfruit and screw trees. The residents are Polynesians, mostly Protestant Christians, who earn their main income (foreign exchange) from the sale of copra, fish and postage stamps.
History: The Ellice Islands had been a British protectorate since 1892, and from 1916 part of the Crown Colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands. After a referendum (1974) and renaming to Tuvalu, it separated from the Gilbert Islands (Kiribati) in 1976 and gained independence in 1978.
- Official name: Tuvalu
- License plate: TUV
- ISO-3166: TV, TUV (798)
- Internet domain:.tv
- Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($ A) = 100 cents
- Area: 30 km²
- Population (2019): 11 650
- Capital: Funafuti
- Official language (s): Tuvaluan, English
- Form of government: Parliamentary monarchy in the Commonwealth
- Seat of government: Vaiaku
- Administrative division: 9 atolls
- Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor General Iakoba Italeli
- Head of Government: Kausea Natano (since 19.9.2019)
- Religion (s) (2012): Christians (92% Protestants), 8% other / n / a
- Time zone: Central European Time +11 hours
- National holiday: October 1st
Location and infrastructure
- Location (geographical): Oceania
- Position (coordinates): between 5 ° 30 ‘and 11 ° south latitude and 176 ° and 180 ° east longitude
- Climate: Tropical maritime climate
- Road network (2011): 8 km (paved)
- Annual population growth (2021): 0.9%
- Birth rate (2021): 23 per 1000 inh.
- Death rate (2021): 8 per 1000 pop.
- Average age (2020): 26.6 years
- Average life expectancy (2021): 68.1 years (women 70.6; men 65.7)
- Age structure (2020): 29.4% younger than 15 years, 6.7% older than 65 years
- Literacy rate (15 year olds and older): N / A
- Mobile phone contracts (pre-paid and post-paid) (2017): 70 per 100 pop.
- Internet users (2017): 49 per 100 residents.
- GDP per capita (2019): US $ 4,309
- Total GDP (2019): $ 0.047 billion
- GNI per capita (2019): US $ 5,620
- Education expenditure: n / a
- Military expenditure: n / a
- Unemployment rate: n / a
The nine islands or atolls are located in an island chain that extends over 590 km from northwest to southeast. They are almost all surrounded by reefs and only rise more than 5 m above sea level at low tide. As a result, the island state is threatened by a rise in sea levels against the background of global climate change. The largest island is Vaitupu (5.6 km 2).
Climate and vegetation
Under the influence of the southeast trade wind there is a tropical-maritime climate; the annual mean temperature is 26–32 ° C (slight seasonal fluctuations). Despite high rainfall of up to 3,000 mm per year (main rainy season from October to March), there is a lack of fresh water as the rain quickly seeps into the porous and barren soil. The vegetation is therefore limited to undemanding plants such as coconut and pandanus palms as well as breadfruit trees.
Population and Religion
The residents are almost exclusively Polynesians who are culturally close to the residents of Samoa and Tokelau. Micronesians from Kiribati live on Nui. With an average of 373 residents / km 2 (2017), Tuvalu is densely populated, around half of the population lives on the main atoll Funafuti with the capital of the same name.
Social: In view of the environmental problems, many islanders leave their homes.
Traditionally, the family and the village community play a major role in the social life of the islanders. There are no social institutions in the European sense; however, corresponding services are to be set up.
The constitution guarantees freedom of religion; all religious communities are legally equal. – Over 98% of the population belong to Protestant churches (especially Congregationalists, as well as Adventists [1.4% of the population] and Pentecostals). The largest church in terms of numbers is the Reformed (congregational) “Christian Church of Tuvalu” (“Ekalesia Kelisiano o Tuvalu”; about 97% of the population), officially the “established church” of Tuvalus until 1964. The religious minorities include the Catholics, Bahais and Jehovah’s Witnesses.