Ukraine Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Ukraine
According to directoryaah, around 47.62 million people live in Ukraine, most of them in cities. The population decreased in almost all cities, as the population development in Ukraine is negative overall (-0.7%). This is mainly due to the low birth rate, but also to the emigration, especially of the Russian population.
The Ukrainians make up the majority of the population with 76%, followed by 17% Russian residents. Other small ethnic groups are the Belarusians, Jews, Moldovans and Tatars. The German minority living in the country is estimated at around 33,000 people. The number of emigrants to Germany has been greatly reduced, so that there are only villages with larger German populations in Transcarpathia near Mukachevo and around Odessa and Nikolayev. Life expectancy in Ukraine is 67 years and literacy is almost extensive.
Politics and economics in Ukraine
According to the 1996 constitution, Ukraine is a republic with a presidential system. The head of state is directly elected by the people for five years. The Prime Minister heads the government. The legislature lies with the Supreme Council (Verkhovna Rada) with 450 members who are elected for four years. The country has 24 districts (oblasts). Their governors are appointed and dismissed by the president. There is also the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, with its own parliament and government, and the cities of Kiev and Sevastopol, which have special status.
In 2014, around 14.8 percent of the workforce in Ukraine was employed in agriculture, 26.1 percent in industry and 59.1 percent in the service sector. The east of the country is the (heavy) industrial center of Ukraine, the The west is rural, but increasingly also characterized by light industry.
According to ebizdir, the most important branches of the economy are the metallurgical and chemical industry, the agriculture and food industry as well as mechanical engineering, and increasingly the IT sector. To a large extent, Ukrainian industry suffers from poor competitiveness due to outdated equipment and high energy consumption. However, Ukraine also has a number of locational advantages: a relatively large domestic market with around 45 million residents, some highly developed niche sectors such as aircraft and rocket construction, the close geographical proximity to the sales markets in the EU and Eastern Europe, and a high level of pent-up demand in consumption and modernization investments, very good natural conditions for agriculture and a comparatively low wage level with a generally high level of education.
Transport network in Ukraine
The Ukrainian road network is well developed, but many roads are in poor condition. The road network covers 174,000 km, 164,000 km of which are paved, and consists of long-distance, national and country roads. There is no infrastructure comparable to the German motorway network, apart from a few highways between Kyїv-Boryspil, Kyїv-Odessa and Harkiv-Dnipropetrovsk, as well as motorway-like sections with several lanes on the international routes. Area centers and larger district towns, however, have a good infrastructure and have a dense network of public transport, including trams, trolleybuses, buses, taxis and marshrutkas (so-called shared taxis). Kyїv, Harkiv and Dnipropetrovs’k have a metro network.
In the Ukraine, cars are allowed to drive 60 km / h in urban areas, 90 km / h on country roads, 110 km / h on expressways and 130 km / h on motorways. Those who have had their driver’s license for less than two years are generally only allowed to drive 70 km / h.
Cities and regions in Ukraine
The administrative structure of Ukraine is strongly based on the principle of the unitary state. The country is divided into 24 oblasts, an “Autonomous Republic” and two cities with special status. The majority of Ukrainian oblasts are named after the name of their capital, which is also officially known as the Oblast Center. An oblast center is usually also the largest and most developed city in the respective oblast.
The “cities with special status” Kiev and Sevastopol are directly administered by the central government of Ukraine. They receive their status through the administrative subdivision of the former Ukrainian SSR, the exact legal status being determined by special laws.
These three national entities are further subdivided into smaller units, these are usually the Rajons. Rajons are smaller administrative units in Ukraine. In 2006 there were 490 Rajons spread across the 24 oblasts and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The average Rajon of Ukraine has an area of 1200 km² with an average population of 52,000 residents.
Cities in Ukraine are characterized by the granting of the city statute by the respective administrative unit. Three types of administration can be distinguished: City with: special status, are directly subordinate to the Ukrainian government, with oblast meaning, are subordinate to an oblast administration and with raion meaning, are subordinate to a rajon administration.
The rural settlements still exist as the smallest administrative unit. There are also various intermediate stages, several villages and settlements are often grouped together to form district administrators. The urban-type settlement is a special form; as a settlement, it must meet special conditions. These smallest units are in turn subordinate to a higher administrative unit, mostly these are Rajons or cities.
The largest city is Kiev, the capital of the country, with about 2.61 million residents. Other megacities are Kharkiv with 1.47 million, Dnjepopetrovsk with 1.07 million, Donetsk with 1.02 million and Odessa on the Black Sea with 1.04 million citizens.