What to See in London (United Kingdom)
According to ITYPEJOB, London is the greatest city in the world. It is one of the 20 largest cities in the world in terms of population, and is also the largest political, economic and cultural center.
Before the Roman conquest of Britain, there was a Celtic settlement in what is now London. During the period of Roman domination, first a military camp Londinium appeared here, and then a river and sea port. By the middle of the IV century. the city has become an important political center. The heyday of London falls on the period of the Norman Conquest, when its trade relations expanded, craft workshops and merchant guilds appeared. At the end of the XI – beginning of the XII centuries. London became the official capital of England. In the XVI century. in Large trading companies began to open in London, in 1571 the London Stock Exchange began its work. At this time, the port of London gained world importance. In the 19th century the population of London reached 1 million people. During the Second World War, the city suffered greatly from the massive air raids of the German fascist aviation.
Unlike many large cities, London did not develop from a single center, but was formed by the merger of independent cities and settlements, therefore, historically, several districts stand out in it. This is the City – the center of the city and the center of world trade; Westend – aristocratic district; Eastend – the center of maritime trade; Soho (Soho) – entertainment center; Westminster is the administrative center.
Banks, stock exchanges, offices of the largest companies are located in the City. The boundaries of this area basically coincide with the boundaries of the Roman city, as evidenced by the remains of fortifications, the foundations of temples and baths. Every morning, about 300,000 employees rush to the City, while its indigenous population is only 6,000 inhabitants.
The blocks of the West End are filled with mansions, hotels, shopping streets, colleges, museums and places of entertainment.
The East End is an area of docks and working-class neighborhoods characterized by overcrowding and an almost complete lack of greenery.
Soho has an entire Chinatown, and its restaurants offer a wide variety of cuisines.
Nisden has the largest Hindu temple outside of India – Sri Swaminarayan. It covers an area of 6071 m 2. 1526 Indian craftsmen worked on the carving for him, the temple was opened on August 20, 1995.
Westminster is home to the Crown Court and most government buildings. London has a wealth of historic sites, great shopping and a vibrant nightlife. The list of sights of London is truly impressive, but among them we should highlight some that have become a symbol not only of the city, but of the whole country. Buckingham Palace is the official residence of Her Majesty the Queen. It is considered by many to be London ‘s most famous landmark.
The palace was built in 1803 by the Duke of Buckingham, and became the royal residence in 1837. It is the latest royal palace in London in terms of construction.
The palace has 661 rooms, 18 of which are open to the public from early August to early October. The queen herself and her husband occupy 12 rooms in the north wing. When the queen is in the palace, the royal flag flutters on the roof, at this time the palace cannot be visited. The rooms of Buckingham Palace contain the treasures of the Royal Collection – paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens, Vermeer, Poussin, Claude, sculptures by Canova and Chantry, Sevres porcelain, the best examples of English and French furniture. An interesting spectacle that attracts many tourists is the daily changing of the guard ceremony on the square in front of the palace. The ceremony starts at 11.30 and takes place every day in summer and every other day in winter.
The Tower is the main Romanesque building in London .. Its history spans about 9 centuries. During this time, he managed to visit the residence of kings, an armory and a treasury, as well as a prison and a place of execution. In the Tower, many famous people laid down their heads on the chopping block. Among them are Sir Thomas More, Sir Walter Reilly, Henry VIII’s wives Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard.
The first building on the territory of the fortress was the White Tower, built by order of William the Conqueror to ensure the safety of the royal family in case of public unrest. On the territory of the Tower you can also see the treasury of the British Crown, the medieval Royal Palace, the exhibition “Diamonds and Crowns: Making Royal Jewels” in the Martin Tower, the Museum of the Royal Fusiliers Regiment. From the 14th century the fortress is guarded by yeomen-guards, often called “beefeaters”. Today they are not only an integral part of traditional ceremonies, but also tourist guides of the Tower. Another attraction of the fortress are black crows. Legend has it that if the ravens leave it, the English monarchy will fall.
Tower Bridge built from 1884 to 1894 By the time construction was completed, it turned out to be the largest and most complex drawbridge ever built. It is built in the Gothic style. At night, the medieval gloom of the Tower Bridge disappears and, thanks to modern illumination, it appears as a kind of fabulous building.
Westminster Abbey was built on the site of a Benedictine abbey and has been the coronation church of English kings since the time of William the Conqueror. Until the middle of the 18th century, the abbey was repeatedly rebuilt and completed, it successfully combines examples of various architectural styles. In the abbey there is a tomb of English kings, state and church figures, famous people (Dickens, Newton, Darwin and others).
The Houses of Parliament (Westminster Palace) is located near Westminster Abbey. It was built in neo-gothic style and includes two parts – the House of Commons and the House of Lords. When sessions are held in the Chambers, entry for tourists is limited. It is better to come here around 6 pm when it is not so crowded. On the tower of St. Stephen’s Palace of Westminster there is a clock called Big Ben. It shows the exact time since 1859. In general, Big Ben is the name of the bell, which is the voice of London. According to the most common version, the bell was named in honor of its customer, Benjamin Hall, and also for its impressive size: its height is more than 2 meters, and its diameter is almost 3 meters.
St Paul’s Cathedral, the patron saint of London, was built in 1675 – 1710. It stands on the site where two cathedrals used to stand, the earliest of which dates back to 604. The cathedral is the largest in the world after St. Peter’s in Rome and was once the tallest building in London. One of his curiosities is the “whisper gallery”, in which, with one’s ear to the wall, one can hear the words spoken in a whisper at the opposite end of the gallery. On the western facade there is a tower in which the main bell of England – the “big Paul” is located. Its weight is 16 tons, and the sound is heard at a distance of over 30 km.
Trafalgar Square is the tourist center of London. It was planned in 1829-1841. In the center of the square there is a 60-meter Nelson’s column in honor of the victory over the Franco-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar. There are always a lot of not only people, but also pigeons on the square.
Piccadilly Circus was established in 1819 and is a favorite meeting place for Londoners. Here is the cafe “Royal”, where writers and artists gathered at the beginning of the century.
There are more than 250 museums in London, some of which have become world famous.
The British Museum is one of the largest and richest museums in the world. It was founded in 1753. It contains monuments of primitive art (mainly of the British Isles), the culture of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, Ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval art of Europe, Asia and Africa. The extensive ethnographic collections of the museum contain cultural monuments of the peoples of Africa, America and Oceania. The library of the British Museum contains more than 7 million books, about 105 thousand manuscripts, about 100 thousand charters and charters, over 3 thousand papyri.
The Tate Gallery is the richest collection of monuments of English art of the 16th – 20th centuries. Here you can also see works of Western European art of the late XIX – early XX centuries. At the heart of the gallery’s collection is a collection of paintings that belonged to the industrialist Tate. At his expense in 1897 the first halls of the gallery were erected.
At the National Art Gallery you can see the paintings of the XIII – XX centuries, including the works of Leonardo da Vinci, Van Dyck, Velasquez and Picasso.
The Victoria and Albert Museum of Decorative Arts has been open since 1909. Its 150 rooms contain the richest collections of works of art of all directions.
Madame Tussauds is the most famous wax museum in the world, founded in 1835. The museum presents wax copies of historical figures, show business heroes, horror camera characters with scenes of the most notorious crimes.
Having been in London, one cannot fail to visit the Sherlock Holmes Museum, which is naturally located at 221 Baker Street. The apartment of the famous detective was recreated according to its descriptions in the works of Conan Doyle.
The London Underground Prison is a world-famous Museum of Horror, opened in 1975. Here, the tortures of the Middle Ages are recreated in all details. Mary Stuart Queen of Scotland, Joan of Arc, Dr. Jaeckel “Jack the Ripper”, all these characters and many other victims of that era speak and move. Many prisoners simply scream furiously and whine plaintively. skeletons, instruments of torture and music that brings horror and fear – all this creates a feeling of reality of what is happening, so it is better not to watch for the faint of heart and impressionable.
The capital is not only historical buildings, but also magnificent parks. The most famous park is Hyde Park. Once it was a royal hunting ground and an ideal place for duels and competitions. The park is located near the Serpentine Lake, which is loved by yachtsmen. One of the most elegant parks is Regents Park, located next to Madame Tussauds.
London is good for fans of evening walks. There are many places where you can take a leisurely walk and admire the spectacularly illuminated buildings of the city.
To explore London, you can choose from a variety of options: a city tour, a tour of the Thames, a tour on the famous double-decker buses, themed walking tours – Shakespeare ‘s London, London of Sherlock Holmes, in the places of the Beatles, London of Charles Dickens, in the footsteps of Jack the Ripper.
Not far from Tower Bridge is the evening theatrical performance “The Beefeater”. The performance takes place with the participation of the audience during a traditional dinner. In London, you should definitely visit one of the many pubs that have become part of British culture.
London is one of the largest theater capitals in the world. Here you will find the Covent Garden Opera Theatre, the Old Vic Drama Theatre, the Royal Court Modern Play Theatre, the experimental Mermaid Theater and many others, the total number of which reaches 50. In the capital, you can watch sensational musicals Chicago, Lion King, Les Miserables, Phantom Of The Opera, We Will Rock You and others.