World Heritages in Turkey Part II
Ephesus (world heritage)
The ancient place on the west coast of Asia Minor, originally located at the mouth of the Kaystros, developed into a rich port city that housed one of the seven wonders of the world with the Temple of Artemis. Through the cult of Artemis, which merged early with the cult of Cybele, which is known in Asia Minor, Ephesus was well known in antiquity. The excavations of today’s inland ruins began in 1863, systematically since 1895. Fore more information about Turkey and Middle East, please visit campingship.
|Cultural monument:||Excavation site with important monuments: including ruins of the Temple of Artemis, Celsus library, large theater, Marble Street, Gymnasium, Temple of Hadrian, Odeion, St. Mary’s Church, St. John’s Church|
|Location:||Approx. 75 km southeast of İzmir near Selçuk|
|Meaning:||The history of the settlement of Ephesus reflects the succession of Greek, Roman and Byzantine rule as well as the rise and fall of an important trading city.|
The rise and fall of an ancient city
Settled by Greeks from Athens, Ephesus became the center of Ionian Greek culture and an important trading and port city. The city flourished again in the Hellenistic-Roman period. One of the first large Christian communities was founded here. After the destruction of the war and the devastation caused by earthquakes, the city remained an important political and cultural center as well as an early Christian pilgrimage site in Byzantine times. Threatened by increasing swamp and siltation, the center of the city shifted more and more to the Aya Soluk hill. In the early Middle Ages, the port finally silted up. Under Ottoman rule, Ephesus finally sank to insignificance.
Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape (World Heritage)
The southern Anatolian provincial capital Diyarbakır, located on the right bank of the Upper Tigris, is now predominantly inhabited by Kurds and is the economic center of the eastern Upper Tigris Basin. Different historical epochs are reflected in the history of the huge ancient fortress with the outer city wall and the inner citadel. The 5.8 km long outer wall goes back to the Roman ruler Constantius II. It was completely renovated by the Seljuks in 1088, immediately after they had conquered Diyarbakır, and provided with four gates and numerous defensive towers, and in 1208 it was reinforced by bastions. There are numerous inscriptions from different epochs on the wall. The cultural landscape of the Hevsel Gardens, a reservoir for the food and water supply, forms a bridge to the Tigris.
Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape: Facts Hide table
|Official title:||Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape|
|Cultural monument:||Fortress with a 5.8 km long outer city wall and inner citadel; Garden area|
|Meaning:||The ensemble of fortress and fertile gardens, in connection with the river location, provides an outstanding example of a functionally and aesthetically convincing landscape and cityscape with significant historical references.|
Pergamon and its cultural landscape (world heritage)
Ancient Pergamon in the Aegean region of today’s Turkey has been a center of Greco-Hellenistic culture for centuries. The Acropolis of Pergamon was the capital of the Hellenistic Attalid dynasty (3rd to 1st centuries BC), a center of learning in the ancient world.
Monumental temples, theaters, stoa or pillared halls, grammar school, altar and library were built into the sloping terrain and surrounded by a huge city wall. The rock-cut sanctuary in honor of the goddess Cybele is located in the northwest on another hill with eye contact to the Acropolis. The city later became the capital of the Roman province of Asia and is known for its Asclepius healing center.
The Acropolis crowns a landscape full of burial mounds and remnants of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman rule in and around the modern city of Bergama below.
Pergamon and its cultural landscape: facts
|Official title:||Pergamon and its cultural landscape|
|Cultural monument:||Archaeological site with remains of both Greek and Roman cities at this point, including the huge 3rd century BC theater. The remains of the library, which owned around 200,000 scrolls in the 1st century AD, the Trajan Temple built under Emperor Hadrian II around AD 120, and the remains of the Byzantine city wall (around AD 1000).); below the Acropolis it was probably in the 5th century BC. Asclepios sanctuary (Asklepieion) founded in BC with a holy spring. While all later excavation finds remained in Turkey (archaeological museums of İzmir, Istanbul and Bergama), the finds from the first excavation campaign came to Berlin, including the famous Pergamon Altar, which was built in the 2nd century BC. Monumental altar erected in BC, which was consecrated to the gods Zeus and Athena.|
|Location:||at the site of today’s city of Bergama in western Turkey, near the Aegean coast|
|Meaning:||one of the largest and most impressive archaeological sites of Greco-Roman antiquity|