Zambia Population, Politics and Economy
Population in Zambia
According to directoryaah, Zambia now has around 17 million residents and is one of the countries with the greatest population growth in the world. The predominantly black population is largely made up of Bantu ethnic groups (Bemba, Rotse, Tonga, Nyanja-Chewa, Nsenga, Tumbuka, Ngoni, Lala, Kaonde, Namwanga, Lunda, Mambwe, Luvale. Lamba, Ushi, Lenje, Bisa, Mbunda, Luba) together. A small minority includes ethnic groups of Indian and European descent. Zambia is one of the countries with the highest HIV infection rate.
Almost all residents are Christians, only 0.5% of the population belong to the Muslim faith. There are also African religions such as the Tumbuka with the Vimbuza cult. These cults of obsession are summarized as Mashawe in Zambia. A small minority belong to the Baha’i as well as the Hindus and Buddhists. Among the Christians, 75% are Protestants (including Anglicans, followers of the Pentecostal movement and the New Apostolic Church) and 20% Roman Catholic.
Although the official language and business language in Zambia is English, only 1.7% of the population speak English as their mother tongue. The remainder of the population uses a total of 43 different Bantu languages for communication, of which Bemba and Nyanja have established themselves as lingua franca.
Politics and Economy in Zambia
After the constitution, which was manifested in 1964 following independence from Great Britain and was last amended in 1991, Zambia is a presidential republic in the British-influenced Commonwealth of Nations. It was not until 1991 that a decision was made to introduce a multi-party system with the simultaneous deselection of incumbent President Kenneth Kaunda, which replaced the previous quasi-dictatorship after massive protests by the civilian population and international patrons. The parliament has 156 members who, like the president, are re-elected every 5 years. The president at the head of the executive, who is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and prime minister, leads the cabinet and can be re-elected once.
The system of government, which consists of both democratic and authoritarian elements, is assessed as partially free according to international observation. Zambia is a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Common Market in Southern and Eastern Africa (COMESA), the African Union and the Commonwealth of Nations.
According to ebizdir, agriculture and mining are the main industries in Zambia. In the Copperbelt region in particular, there are considerable mineral resources of copper and cobalt, which are mined and smelted. Tin and lead mining are also carried out in the central region around the city of Kabwe. The mining products copper, cobalt, lead, zinc and precious stones contribute almost 80% to Zambia’s export income. However, only 14% of Zambia’s population is employed in mining. Over 80% of the rest of the population live from agriculture. Despite its mineral wealth and considerable economic efforts, Zambia remains one of the poorest countries in the world. In Zambia, numerous municipal projects have recently been initiated by Chinese investors (e.g. road construction projects), which are partly realized with Chinese workers and in reduced quality. The long-term benefits of such projects for Zambia and its economy are controversial.
Transport network in Zambia
There is left-hand traffic in Zambia. Although the main roads connecting the big cities are asphalted or at least graveled, the 40,454 kilometers of road network is overall in poor condition. Only a third of the existing roads have an asphalt surface. Away from the main roads, the road network is very thin and some remote areas, especially in northern Zambia, are hardly accessible by roads, especially during the rainy season. As a rule, the side streets are littered with potholes.
Driving after dark should be avoided due to the high risk of accidents, as the road markings are insufficient, wild animals can cross the road and some cars have no lights and therefore cannot be seen in time. Unlit vehicles in the wrong lane or excessive width as well as attacks on artificially created obstacles must also be expected.
The 3,126-kilometer rail network in Zambia is operated by the two companies TAZARA (Tanzania Zambia Railway Authority) and Zambia Railways and is mainly used for freight transport. Two pairs of passenger trains run weekly on the TAZARA route to Dar es Salaam and one to Nakonde in Eastern Zambia. Zambia Railways operates four pairs of passenger trains per week between Kitwe and Livingstone within the country. Twice a week in the south of the country there is a passenger train with goods transport from Livingstone to Mulobezi and back.
The 6 main airports in Zambia are located in Lusaka, Livingstone, Ndola, Chipata, Mfuwe and Solwesi (in order of capacity).
Culture and sights in Zambia
The main attractions of Zambia include the 19 national parks and protected areas, which, in addition to fascinating insights into the fauna and flora of Zambia, also offer the country’s most spectacular impressions of the landscape. The shores of Lake Tanganyika, some of which are in the protected areas, and the other larger lakes in Zambia are also absolutely worth seeing.
Apart from the most famous Victoria Waterfalls, there are a number of other waterfalls worth seeing in Zambia, such as the Lumangwe Falls, Chimpepe Falls, Kabweluma Falls, Kundabwiku Falls and Mumbuluma Falls on the Kalungwishi River in the north of the country, through the Kapuma Falls, the Lupupa Falls and the Pules Falls on its tributaries is supplemented. The Luapula also has unique white water rapids with a steep gradient with the Mambilima Falls and the almost inaccessible Mambatutafalls. On Lake Tanganyika, the Kalambo Falls and the Lunzua Falls plunge over 200 meters into the depth. The Sanzye Falls are close by. In addition to these natural spectacles, there are other waterfalls such as the Senkel Falls, Chusa Falls and Namundela Falls of the Mansha River between Mpika and Kasama. In this area are also the Chishimba Falls, Mutinondo Wilderness Falls and Lwitikila Falls. The Kundalila Falls are further south.
Cultural life in Zambia is diverse at the local and tribal level. Traditions are passed on primarily in the form of dance, music, theater and festivities. Music has a long tradition in Zambia and is shaped by traditional, popular and Christian elements. The traditional music of Zambia comes from the ceremonies and beliefs of the various ethnic groups and is primarily used for ritual purposes. Since independence, traditional music, which is produced with a wide variety of drums, lamellophones and simple stringed instruments, has unfortunately lost its importance.
After independence, popular music was mainly shaped by the Zambian radio service with the Lusaka Radio Band, which spread the Congolese rumba dance music. The Copperbelt soon developed its own guitar-based music style, which as Zamrock combined English song lyrics with rock music. A completely unique form of Zambian music can be found in the banjo tradition.
Today’s Christian music in Zambia includes traditional as well as colonial and popular musical elements.
Zambia is also a sport-loving country, and soccer in particular has many fans. In February 2012, Zambia won the African Cup of Nations for the first time in the country’s football history.