Zimbabwe Population, Politics and Economy

Zimbabwe Population, Politics and Economy

Population in Zimbabwe

According to directoryaah, 70% of the Zimbabwean population are Shona, 13% Ndebele and the Chewa are represented with 6% of the population. In addition, there are several smaller ethnic groups with locally limited settlement areas such as the Tonga on the Zambezi and the Tsonga and the Venda in southern Zimbabwe.

Most of the Europeans, who still made up about 5% of the population in Zimbabwe around the middle of the 20th century, left the country after independence. It is estimated that fewer than 20,000 Europeans live in Zimbabwe today. There is also a population group that emerged from connections between Europeans and the indigenous black population and a small minority from the Indian subcontinent.

Shona and Ndebele are the official language in Zimbabwe along with English and are also taught in schools. Dialects are predominantly spoken in the country. Since schooling is compulsory in Zimbabwe, around 90% of Zimbabweans can read and write.

In Zimbabwe, 25% of the population are Christian. Half of the residents practice a mixture of Christian and traditional religions, which also include ancestor worship and belief in spirits. There is a small minority of Muslims, Jews and Hindus.

Politics and Economy in Zimbabwe

The form of government in Zimbabwe is a parliamentary democracy, with a president and a prime minister, who is occupied by the representative of the opposition. For 30 years Zimbabwe was ruled by the dictatorial President Robert Mugabe. Since a constitutional amendment in 2013, the president is only elected for five years and can be re-elected once. at his side he has one or two deputies.

Zimbabwe Politics

According to ebizdir, Zimbabwe was one of the economically strongest in Africa, since 2015 economic output has been growing at a predicted 1.5% less than in all of its neighboring countries and Zimbabwe is currently one of the poorest economies in the world. Due to the dictatorial political environment, the conditions for the once prosperous economy have deteriorated substantially since the 1990s. From 1998 to 2008, economic output shrank by around half. Almost 94% are unemployed, there is a low gross domestic product, currency shortages, investment and energy shortages. Corn, soy, tobacco, cotton, peanuts and jute were once grown in Zimbabwe. After the implementation of the land reform, in which farms were to be handed over to the locals, agriculture gradually deteriorated.

Transport network in Zimbabwe

The reconstruction of the transport network has been underway since the peace agreement in 1992, but it still shows numerous shortcomings. Most of the roads in the country are unpaved and in relatively poor condition. Of the total of 97,440 km of road network, only 18,514 km are asphalted. Especially during and after the rainy season, many of these slopes are difficult or impossible to ski.

Zimbabwe has a rail network of around 3000 kilometers, on which, in addition to the main freight traffic, passenger trains between Bulawayo and Harare and through trains from Lobatse in Botswana to South Africa run. Most of the routes are operated by the state-owned National Railways of Zimbabwe.

The capital Harare has an international airport.

Cities and regions in Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe is divided into the eight provinces of Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands and two metropolitan regions, Harare Province and Bulawayo Province.

Major cities in Zimbabwe are:


The city of Harare is the capital of Zimbabwe and has over 1.5 million residents (2012). Harare makes a wonderful base and starting point for any trip. The entire city extends over a diameter of 50 kilometers and is home to 100 districts. Sights include museums and galleries, and on walks through the city, traces of the colonial heritage can be found in the historic buildings. In the southwest corner of Harare city center rises the granite hill called Kopje, from which one has a wonderful view of the Zimbabwean capital.


The city of Bulawayo is the capital of the province of Bulawayo and is the second largest city in Zimbabwe with around 650,000 residents (2012). Bulawayo was considered a political and administrative center as well as the best economic and industrial location in the southwest. The cityscape is dominated by the remaining historic houses in Victorian style. Sights in Bulawayo include the National Museum, Khami Ruins, Mzilikazi, Craft Center, National Railway Museum and Maria Immaculata Cathedral Basilica.


The young city of Chitungwiza was founded nine kilometers south of Harare at an altitude of about 1,500 m from the three suburbs of Harares (townships) Seke, Zengeza and St Marys. Meanwhile, the city in the province of Harare with 356,840 residents (2012) is the third largest and one of the fastest growing cities in Zimbabwe. Chitungwiza mainly houses the people who work in Harare. There are hospitals, schools and infrastructure, with comprehensive care being provided through downtown Harare.


Mutare is one of the cities with the highest recreational value in Zimbabwe. The alpine area consists of numerous pine forests and protected areas. Mutare is the capital and administrative center of the province of Manicaland and with almost 200,000 residents (2012) the fourth largest city in Zimbabwe and an industrial location and economic center for wood and paper processing as well as coffee and tea production in the entire Eastern Highlands. On the border with Mozambique, Mutare is the transit station for travelers to the neighboring country and the Eastern Highlands. Attractions include the city park, Cross Kopje with the memorial to the victims of World War I from Zimbabwe and Mozambique, the Mutare Museum and the Utopia House Museum. The nearby Murahwa Hills are known for their rock art.